HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR
OIL AND OTHER
Health & Safety
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. USED OIL
2. USED OIL FILTERS
5. LIGHT BULBS
6. LIGHT BULB BALLAST
7. SMOKE DETECTORS
8. PAINTS, SOLVENTS AND
9. NON-LATEX PAINT RAGS AND
10. AEROSOL CANS
11. LABELS AND CHEMICAL
13. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
14. WASTE MINIMIZATION
Both the State and Federal Environmental Agencies
have regulations concerning the management of used oil and other maintenance -
related materials. These agencies are the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The intent of these
regulations is to establish a comprehensive program for the proper management
and recycling of used oil and other maintenance - related items. This is a
summary of those regulations and should serve as a guideline for all
maintenance and repair shops located at the Lock Haven University.
There are specific regulatory
requirements for individuals who generate and accumulate waste:
- Minimize and recycle.
- Properly label and identify.
- Properly contain and dispose of the waste.
The purpose of this document is to
assist shops with this regulatory compliance. Every shop on campus is subject
to unannounced inspections by both the Federal Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Lack
of compliance can result in citations and fines.
The regulatory requirements covered
in this document include:
- Determination of a "waste" as a material
that has no intended use or reuse.
- Proper labeling of the waste.
- Proper accumulation and disposal of the waste.
The following are waste streams
that are commonly generated at maintenance shops:
The term "Used Oil"
is a broad category and includes motor oil, vacuum pump oil, synthetic oils,
transmission and brake fluids, lubricating greases, etc.
- Used oil does not include products derived from
vegetable or animal fat.
- Used oil is prohibited from going to the landfill.
- EH&S must perform a hazardous waste determination on
each oil waste stream to find out if it should be classified as hazardous.
If the used oil stream is determined to be hazardous, then the oil must be
handled as a hazardous waste and EH&S must dispose of it. The main
reason for an oil stream to be classified as hazardous is through its
contact with solvents (such as brake cleaners and paints) or heavy metals.
- If the used oil is determined not to be hazardous, it may
be sent to a recycling center or to EH&S for disposal.
"Oily wastes" are also covered under these regulations.
Oily wastes are defined as "those materials, which are mixed with used
oil and have become separated from that used oil." This includes oil
that has been mixed with "kitty litter," absorbent clay and organic
absorbent material. These materials (with the exception of rags and paper
towels) may be landfilled provided that:
- the amount generated is a small amount.
- it is the result of minor leaks or spills from a normal
- all free-flowing oil has been removed to
the practical extent possible.
Large quantities of oily wastes,
generated as a result of a major spill or in lieu of proper maintenance of the
processing equipment, must have a hazardous waste determination performed prior
to disposal. Contact EH&S at 893-4428 to have a hazardous waste
determination performed. EHS strongly recommends that this type of waste be
minimized through good housekeeping practices.
Oily rags must be properly disposed of or sent to a
rag cleaning service.
Storage of Used Oil:
- Generators must store used oil in appropriate containers
such as DOT approved drums or tanks that are dedicated solely for the
storage of used oil.
- Each container must be labeled with the words "Used
Oil" and all containers must be maintained in good condition.
- The storage containers must be protected from weather and
stored on an impermeable surface.
- Any leak or spill must be contained and cleaned up, and
the tank repaired or replaced.
Shipments of Used Oil:
- Generators must ensure that their used oil is transported
only by transporters who have a current Used Oil Transporter Certificate
of Approval issued by the Department of Environmental Protection.
- In order for a transporter to receive the Certificate of
Approval, they must have a DEP/EPA identification number and a used oil
training program, and will have demonstrated minimal insurance coverage.
- Contact EH&S at 893-4428 to get the names of approved
2. Used Oil-Filters
Commercially generated used
oil-filters are banned from landfill disposal. A registered used oil-filter
processor must process the filters.
- Used oil-filters must be stored in above ground containers,
which are in good condition and are clearly labeled "Used
- The storage containers must be protected from weather,
have a lid and stored on an oil impermeable surface.
Improper disposal of antifreeze
is an environmental concern for everyone. Unused antifreeze is not
considered a hazardous waste, however, antifreeze will
be classified as a hazardous waste if there is contact with heavy metals or
organics such as brake or transmission fluid, carburetor cleaner, or other solvents.
Containers must be labeled with the words "Used Antifreeze and a
hazardous waste determination must be performed on each source of used
The State encourages the proper
recycling of waste antifreeze. There are waste antifreeze service companies
that will service and recycle your antifreeze. Copies of all notices,
certifications, waste analysis data and other documentation must be retained
for five years from the date that the waste was sent to a recycling facility.
- Alkaline batteries can be disposed of in the trash.
- Car batteries
should be taken to a Recycling Facility.
- All other batteries which contain hazardous metals such as mercury, lead,
silver, lithium and cadmium must be handled as hazardous waste.
Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge (HID) bulbs
contain mercury and must be recycled.
6. Light Bulb Ballasts
Only ballasts that say
"non-PCB" can be disposed in the landfill. If there is no writing on
the ballast (pre-1976) or they are known to contain PCB’s then must dispose of Hazardous
7. Smoke Detectors
Some smoke detectors contain
radioactive material. A label on the back or side of the detector will alert
you to the presence of a radiation source. Depending on the type of detector
and the amount of radioactivity in the source, it may be necessary to dispose
of these detectors at a licensed radioactive waste disposal facility. The
detectors must be intact for disposal. Some smoke detectors containing
radioactive materials may be exempt from these disposal requirements. Contact
EH&S at 893-4428 to determine if your smoke detectors are exempt or regulated prior to disposing them.
It is recommended that detectors,
which do not contain radioactive materials be used, if they are appropriate for
your application, to avoid disposal costs, which may exceed the purchase price
of the detector.
8. Paints, Solvents and Acids
EH&S recycles latex paint,
contact EH&S for the disposal of any latex paint.
- If the paint in the can is completely dry, it may
be disposed of in the trash.
- Dried rags and paintbrushes that are contaminated with latex-based
paints may be placed in the trash.
- The rinsate water
from the cleaning of rags and brushes contaminated with latex paints must
be disposed of in a drain that goes directly to the wastewater treatment
Other paints generally meet the definition of hazardous
waste and must be disposed of by EH&S.
- Paint cans
that once contained non-latex paints must meet the definition of
empty before they can be placed in the trash. This is achieved by scraping
the container to ensure that all pourable
materials have been removed. The pourable
material must be collected for disposal by EH&S.
- No more than 55 gallons of hazardous waste (non-latex paint, solvent, acids,
paint rags and brushes) can be kept in an accumulation area. If your area
is close to exceeding 55 gallons, call EHS.
- Each container of hazardous waste must stay closed and no
funnel can remain in the container.
- The containment area must stay cleaned.
- The funnels should be cleaned out occasionally.
- A Hazardous Waste Label must be on every
Solvents and Acids:
Solvents (including thinners, degreasers, etc.) and acids
can not be put in the trash or sink.
- Once these solvents or acids are no longer usable, the
liquid must be placed in a container (preferably the original container)
and be handled as a hazardous waste.
- A Hazardous Waste Label must be on every
- Do not
mix acids, bases or solvents together. They should each have their own
- Common acids include; muriatic
acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid.
9. Non-Latex Paint Rags and Brushes
Brushes and rags that have been contaminated
with hazardous waste (non-latex paints, cleaners, thinners, strippers, etc.) can
not be placed in the trash.
- Since these rags and brushes are flammable, it is best to
place them together in a metal can that is designed to prevent spontaneous
- Information on these special containers can be given by
calling EH&S at 893-4428.
- A Hazardous Waste Label must be placed on the
- When the container is full, Call EH&S
10. Aerosol Cans
Only empty aerosol cans can be
placed in the trash.
- Aerosol cans that are not empty must be accumulated in a
container or drum and be disposed of by EH&S.
- The container or drum must have a Hazardous Waste Label
11. Labels and Chemical Waste Pickups:
Place a Hazardous Waste Label
on every container of hazardous waste. These labels are available free of
charge by calling the EH&S at 893-4428
All containers of waste must have a label on the container
identifying the contents.
12. Accumulation Requirements:
- Do not accumulate more than 55 gallons of waste at any one
- Keep all containers closed.
- Keep containment area clean and protected from the
- Do not allow any accumulation of water or liquid on the
top of the container.
- All waste containers must have a label identifying the
- No un-approved waste in sink or trash.
- Do not overfill containers; leave at least 1 inch of
- Keep liquid and solid waste streams separate.
- Keep a spill kit within easy access for all shop
13. Safety Precautions:
- Do not mix incompatibles (ex. Acids/bases,
- Do not bring cleaning materials from home.
- Wear personal protective equipment.
14. Waste Minimization:
Waste minimization is any action
that reduces the amount and/or toxicity of wastes that must be shipped off-site
for disposal. There are three methods of waste minimization.
- Source Reduction:
desirable method of waste minimization is source reduction. This is any
activity that reduces or eliminates the generation of waste at the source. This
can be accomplished by good materials management, substitution of less
hazardous materials and good shop operating procedures. The following are some
- Implement a waste minimization policy
and train all employees.
- Make a commitment to reducing waste in
all areas of the shop.
- Evaluate the wastes being generated
and identify areas where changes can be made.
- Encourage employee participation
through education, training and incentives.
- Evaluate procedures to see if a less
hazardous or non-hazardous materials could be substituted.
- Centralize purchasing of material
through one person in the department.
- Minimize inventory and use a first-in,
- Keep MSDS’s
for chemicals on file.
- Inventory materials and identify their
location at least once a year.
- Update inventory when materials are
purchased or used up.
- Purchase chemicals in the smallest
- Label all containers to prevent the
generation of unknowns.
- Avoid the use of materials containing
arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver.
- Substitute red liquid (spirit-filled),
digital, or thermocouple thermometers for mercury thermometers when it is
- Consider using detergent and hot water
for cleaning parts instead of solvents.
- Use latex-based paints because
typically they are non-hazardous.
- Find a vendor that will recycle used antifreeze.
Some vendors will recycle the antifreeze on site so the antifreeze never
leaves the site.
- Use multi-purpose solvents to reduce
the types of hazardous waste that needs to be managed.
second most desirable approach is recycling. When a waste material is used for
another purpose, treated and reused in the same process, or reclaimed for
another process, this is called recycling. Following are examples:
- When solvent is used for cleaning
purposes, use contaminated solvent for initial cleaning and fresh solvent
for final cleaning.
- Purchase compressed gas cylinders
(including lecture bottles) only from manufacturers who will accept empty
- Return excess pesticides to the
- Do not contaminate used oil with
solvents because this prevents the oil from being recycled.
- Recycle solvents.
preferable technique is treatment. The most common treatment is elementary
neutralization. Check with EH&S (893-4428) to ensure safety and proper