Several papers will be required in this seminar. Papers are expected to be college level in their content and format. This document contains guidelines for references including internet sources.
Bibliography should contain ALL sources used in the preparation of your paper on the topic.
References Cited should contain ONLY sources that were directly cited within the paper. The "format" of how to reference from various sources are presented below in the Examples section.
Reference Format There are many acceptable way to list references. Paper may use formats other than alpha-numeric as long as they are properly done.
For the "References Cited" section, the proper way to use the ALPHA-NUMERIC system is as follows (remember this is only for those references cited in the paper):
Recent studies have shown that antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of E. coli are often plasmid-mediated (2).
In recent studies by Calabrese et al.(2), antibiotic-resistant pathogens were more prevalent in meat products processed by.......etc......
In recent studies by Calabrese and Smith (2), antibiotic-resistant pathogens were more prevalent in meat products processed by............
In recent studies by Calabrese et al. (2), antibiotic resistant pathogens were more prevalent in meat products processed by............
Calabrese, J.P., D.A., Smith, and T.P. Yoho. 1999. A study guide for non-majors in college biology. 1st ed. Forle Publishers, Cleveland OH.
Mullis, K.B. 1990. The unusual origin of the polymerase chain reaction. Sci. Am. 262:56-65.
Lee, M.R., D. Ho, and M.E. Gurney. 1987. Functional interaction and potential homology between human immunodeficiency virus and neurolukin. Science 237:1047-1051.
Chapter or Article in an Edited Volume:
Hallifax, F.T.R., and F. Crick. 1958. Sexual selection and mate choice. p. 280-313. In J.R. Krepsbach and N.B. Davidson (eds.) Behavioral ecology and systematics: an evolutionary approach. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
Internet Sources - World Wide Web:
You MUST provide the following:
Date of Publication and/or Revision in parentheses ( )
Title of Document
Title of Complete Work (if provided) underlined or in italics
The URL in angle brackets < >
Date of Access of the site in parentheses ( )
NOTE: For additional information on citing electronic sources, visit the LHU Stevenson Library Home Page and click on the "Reference Desk" button.
General Web site:
Harris, J.G. (1997, April 19). The return of the witch hunts. Witchhunt Information Page. <http://liquid2-sun.mit.edu/fells.short.html> (1997, November 19).
Darwin, C. (1845; 1997, June). The voyage of the Beagle. Project Gutenberg. <ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext97/vbgle10.txt> (1997, October 1).
Article in an Electronic Journal:
Browning, T. (1998). Embedded visuals: Student design in Web spaces. Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments. <http://www.as.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1/features/browning/ index.html> (1997, October 21).
Article in an Electronic Magazine:
Myhrvold, N. (1997, June 12). Confessions of a cybershaman. Slate. <http://www.slate.com/CriticalMass/97-06-12/CriticalMass.asp> (1997, October 19).
Electronic Government Publication:
Bush, G. (1989, April 12). Principles of ethical conduct for government officers and employees. Exec. Order No. 12674. Pt. 1. <http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html> (1997, November 18).
NOTE: A Bibliography page would look similar to the above except NO NUMBERING of references, only alphabetized.