EVELYN WAUGH NEWSLETTER AND
Vol. 42, No. 1
And All That?
History in Evelyn Waugh’s Edmund Campion 
by Donat Gallagher
James Cook University
American Edition of Edmund Campion for the New Yorker in 1946,
Edmund Wilson, the eminent novelist and critic, wrote: “Waugh’s version of
history is in its main lines more or less in the vein of 1066 And All That.
Catholicism was a Good Thing and Protestantism was a Bad Thing, and that is
all that needs to be said about it.” Strangely,
Wilson went on to accuse Edmund Campion of making “no attempt to
create historical atmosphere”; and this of a biography that offends, where it
offends, by locating its central biographical narrative within a boldly
tendentious—and atmospheric—version of Elizabethan history. Despite this
opening, which seems to promise a discussion of Waugh’s history in the
broad, the following modest essay will concern itself mainly with slips and
blunders, primarily because one noted Campion scholar virtually defines
Waugh's Edmund Campion by its “irritating historical errors.” But it is fair to ask how numerous, and how
significant, such errors really are, and why they have been given such
notoriety. Is Waugh’s history really “in the vein of 1066 And All That”?
At the outset it must be said that
Waugh went to extraordinary lengths to disclaim any pretensions to
scholarship for his “short, popular life.” He emphasized his heavy dependence
on Richard Simpson’s biography of Campion,
and in the Preface to the Second [British] Edition declares: “All I have done
is select the incidents which struck a novelist as important, and relate them
in a single narrative.” But Waugh was being modest, for close reading shows
that he drew extensively on the scholarly works listed in his bibliography
and that he used a collection of “notes and documents” made available to him
by Father Leo Hicks, S.J., an historian of note. Waugh writes like a student
of his subject, and he cannot, and should not, be excused for making mistakes
on the ground that he has merely written “a short, popular
To the best of this writer’s
knowledge, the core account of Campion’s life in the biography is widely
accepted to be reliable. Excellent recent studies, such as J. V. Holleran’s A
Jesuit Challenge: Edmund Campion’s Debates at the Tower of
London in 1581, Gerard Kilroy’s Edmund Campion: Memory and
Transcription and Father Thomas
McCoog’s collection of essays, The Reckoned Expense: Edmund
Campion and the Early English Jesuits: Essays in celebration of the first
centenary of Campion Hall, greatly expand knowledge of
Campion’s activities and writings, and of the environments in which
he operated. But these newer studies do not call into question Waugh’s
On the other hand, as indicated
earlier, Waugh surrounds the biographical narrative with a highly
controversial “Bellocian” or “revisionist” historical framework. In the
early1930s, Catholics on one side and most conventionally educated Britons on
the other were still deeply divided about Tudor religious history. No one
then imagined the flood of objective studies of the transition from a
Catholic to a Protestant England (and even re-evaluations of Bloody Mary)
that would be respectfully reviewed in the press around the turn of the
century. Drawing on historical research
reaching back to Dr. John Lingard (1771-1851), Catholic scholars argued, with
varying modulations of stridency, that the true history of the period (in the
words of Waugh’s mentor, Father Hicks) lay “buried deep in many layers
of falsehood.” Catholic historians
rejected the popular belief that the Reformation was a spontaneous revolt by
a “free people” against a tyrannous Papacy (the “Whore of Babylon”). They argued,
and some mainstream historians agreed, that the Reformation in England was an
“act of State.” The more combative
Catholics, some of whom strongly influenced Waugh, went further. They
described the Reformation as a “revolution” purposefully directed by William
Cecil (Lord Burlegh), Sir Francis Walsingham and others (who they believed
duped the Queen) to advance Protestantism and keep in power the “gang” of
rich men who had profited from confiscated Church property. Waugh’s mentors ridiculed the widely credited
notion—recently re-stated by Gerard Kilroy—that “the persecution [of
Catholics under Elizabeth] was less a religious persecution than the response
of a state which feared subversion from within and invasion from without.” They believed that that the intention to
extirpate Catholicism existed “from the beginning” of Elizabeth’s reign. Moreover, they questioned the Gloriana
mythology and adopted a sour view of England’s widely lauded achievements in
empire and commerce.
The Lytton Strachey-like
description of the last days of Queen Elizabeth which opens Edmund Campion
flamboyantly announces that this book will debunk the “received” or
conventional version of Tudor history which then dominated textbooks and
popular opinion; that it will place its hero within the political and
religious world envisioned by the more colourful Catholic “revisionists”
previously outlined. It is a simple fact that, as Peter Quennell put it, “The
Catholic point of view underlies every paragraph.”
But that is not to agree with Charles Rolo and others of his mind who
maintain that Waugh’s “biography of … Edmund Campion … is marred by a
partisanship which flagrantly distorts Elizabethan history.” The point must be made that Waugh’s history of
the Elizabethan period, while consciously, even provocatively, “partisan,”
does not mistakenly “distort” that history. Rather it reflects an arguable
conspectus of the period put forward by mainly Catholic historians who,
although outside mainstream opinion, were, to some extent at least,
groundbreaking scholars determined to bring to light long ignored, or
suppressed, documentary evidence.
Inevitably Edmund Campion
aroused criticism, almost all of it directed at its history. A few critics
denounced its “Catholic” historical conspectus; many were less direct, using
allegations of incompetence and bias as proxies for wider disagreements; some
corrected detail. An essay in Connotations (20.1) discusses several of
the substantive criticisms launched against the history enshrined in Edmund
Campion. I shall very briefly touch
on two of the matters discussed there, because readers should understand that
Waugh’s history, despite much criticism, is in fact generally sound; that the
slips and blunders are not evidence of a general “1066 And All That”
malaise, but blemishes in an otherwise competent (albeit controversial)
sketch of the Elizabethan period.
Campion was favourably reviewed on the BBC in 1935, the United Protestant
Council of Great Britain protested to the Director that recently discovered
evidence proved Edmund Campion guilty of conspiracy to take the life of the
Queen and to bring in foreign armies, and that he had, therefore, been justly
executed. They demanded that the reviewer, who in their mind had proved
incompetent by praising a flawed work of history, should never be allowed to
review an historical work on the BBC again. Because many responsible people
still believe that Campion was justly convicted of treason (the sophisticated
version of the argument is that a broad-minded Elizabeth charged priests with
treason only when they were guilty of treason, whereas her bigoted sister
Mary convicted Protestants on points of conscience), a word of explanation is
needed. In the first place it is essential to give due weight to fact that
there were many Catholic conspiracies at the time, English and European,
directed at Elizabeth. On the other hand, the prosecution of Campion for
conspiracy was “as unfair . . . as any perhaps that can be found in our
books.” The English Government could
have prosecuted Campion under its penal legislation against Catholicism
which, inter alia, made it treason to say Mass or to reconcile an
English subject to Catholicism. Any conviction under those penal
laws would have been plausible. Instead, as documentary evidence
demonstrates, the Government dishonestly chose to arraign Campion and about
fourteen others (the number kept changing), most of whom had never met, on
charges of conspiring to kill the Queen and to bring in foreign armies. The
hope was to avoid the odium of persecuting religion and to incite hatred
against Catholicism and the priests. Arnold Meyer, the Lutheran
authority on the religious history, writes: “the injustice of the charge is
now [as distinct from earlier eras] universally admitted … the endeavour to
prove the plot failed completely, and was bound to fail because there was no
plot.” Meyer labels many executions of priests “judicial murders.” The article in Connotations referred to
above cites five modern historians, all non-Catholic specialists in the
Elizabethan period, who declare Campion not guilty as charged and innocent of
any political activity. That is Waugh’s point.
But while individual missionaries
might be innocent of politics, the enterprise in which they are engaged
could have a political motive. In the climate of competition between Catholic
and Protestant power blocs, no large-scale religious activity—such as the
English Catholic “mission to England” of which Campion was part—could be
without political significance. The motivation of the missionaries was
purely religious, and their instructions were to confine their attention to
existing Catholics, but sending wave after wave of young priests to a Protestant
country was open to political interpretation, even if the priests had to
give witness through their patience under torture and martyrdom.
By far the most influential
criticism of Edmund Campion comes from Rose Macaulay, the noted
English critic, in a famous article in Horizon. Because Macaulay’s criticisms have been endorsed by
authorities as diverse as Hugh Trevor Roper and Malcolm Bradbury, it is
necessary to examine them. Macaulay attacks Edmund Campion as lacking
in “objectiveness and truth to fact” and Waugh for being ignorant of vital
matters. For example, she claims that “Waugh shows no signs throughout his
book … of familiarity with the unceasing plots … that went on.” In fact Edmund
Campion makes frequent reference to Catholic plots; one of its major
themes is that, in a Catholic community where anti-government plotting was
rife, Campion rejected conspiracy. So non-conspiratorial were Campion and his
superior, Robert Parsons, S.J., that they brought a Papal directive to
England prohibiting the long-standing practice of Catholics outwardly
conforming to the Anglican Church by attending Morning Prayer. Non-attendance
meant declaring themselves Catholic and following "holiness
though it led them through bitter ways to poverty, disgrace, exile,
imprisonment and death" (Waugh 105).
Again, Macaulay claims that Waugh
did not know that “English Catholics were absolved from their allegiance [to
the Queen] by a [Papal] Bull.” In fact, Waugh devotes four pages to the
publication of Regnans in Excelsis (39-42) and three pages to its
re-interpretation under Gregory XIII in 1580 (80-82). It is difficult to
understand how anyone who had read Edmund Campion could have missed
the seven pages devoted exclusively to this topic, let alone the many shorter
references to it throughout the book. Macaulay also blames Waugh for calling
the Anglican Church “crazy fashionable Calvinism” and for relegating it to
the “outer darkness of the Protestant left wing.” In fact, Waugh continually
refers to Protestant “extremists,” for whom Elizabeth and Cecil “had no more
taste … than they had for the Catholics” (16, 170); he several times
emphasizes Elizabeth’s “personal inclination … towards … cross and candles …
ministers celibate and suitably vested” (16). Ceremony, celibacy and
vestments were anathema to the “Protestant left wing,” and many of them
suffered severely at Elizabeth’s hands for refusing the surplice. Thus
Macaulay’s criticisms of Waugh are negated by what he actually wrote.
now to slips and blunders: as mentioned above, Father Thomas McCoog,
S.J., the current
Historiographer of the English Jesuit Province, without specifying problems,
writes “Although [Waugh] received assistance from Father Leo Hicks, S.J.,
there are still a number of irritating historical errors [in Edmund
Campion].” As this is the only comment offered on Edmund Campion,
except to say that it is "well written," one can infer that the
writer thinks the number of errors in the book unacceptably high. The
reviewer for the Times Literary Supplement, who made clear that he
held the conventional English Protestant viewpoint on the Elizabethan period,
said that Edmund Campion was “weakest where it travels beyond
the scope of a short biography.” He
alleged four historical errors. (1) The Hussite turmoil and related wars that
set the scene for Campion’s work in Bohemia and Prague. Waugh:
“the monarchy [of Bohemia]
finally, in 1526, passed into the hands of Charles V, who absorbed it into
the [Holy Roman] Empire” (66). TLS: “[Bohemia] really went to
[the Emperor’s] brother Ferdinand.” DG: The reviewer is,
of course, correct; Waugh blundered. But the situation is slightly fuzzy in
that Ferdinand deputized for Charles V in administering the Empire, and
finally became Emperor, so that Waugh’s “absorbed into the Empire” telescopes
real events. (2) Waugh drew into the biography an obiter dictum
from a militant Catholic source. Waugh: “Under [Gregory XIII]
the new Calendar was introduced, which, denounced at first in all Protestant
countries as an invention of anti-Christ, was gradually accepted in the
subsequent two hundred years by each of them in turn” (59-60). TLS:
“[This is] too sweeping: [the Gregorian Calendar] was adopted in Holland and
Denmark before it was adopted by German or Swiss Catholics.” DG:
“Too sweeping” is fair, because the Protestant Netherlands adopted the new
Calendar in December 1582, the year in which Pope Gregory promulgated it. But
England typified the Protestant response. Elizabeth wished to adopt the new
Calendar in 1582, but the Puritan parliamentarians refused to agree to
anything proposed by the Pope (“anti-Christ”), with the result that England
stayed on the Julian Calendar (ten days behind the Gregorian) until 1752.
After leaving Ireland, Campion is thought to have witnessed and been
influenced by the trial of Dr John Storey (also “Story”). Storey had been
active in persecuting Protestants in Mary’s time, and with the advent of
Elizabeth he fled to the Continent and became a Spanish citizen. Cecil’s
agents lured him to Antwerp, where he was kidnapped, brought back to England
and charged with treason for alleged connection with the Northern Rebellion
and for inciting the Duke of Alva to invade England. Storey was executed with
exceptional cruelty (to the applause of Cecil and other Council members
who attended). Waugh: Storey was “brought home to suffer in old
age under an insupportable charge of treason for the prominent part he had
taken against the Protestants in Queen Mary’s reign” (45). TLS:
“the real charge was that [Storey] had incited Alva to invade England and
been privy to the Northern Rebellion of 1569.” DG: Waugh’s
wording is elliptical and ambiguous and TLS mistook him to
mean that the “charge of treason” against Storey was that he had persecuted Protestants
during Mary’s reign. I have always understood Waugh to mean that, while Cecil
brought Storey back to England ostensibly to face charges of
treason re Alva and the Northern Rebellion, his real reason for
the kidnapping and the treason charge was revenge for Storey’s
persecution of Protestants. Many historians accept that this was Cecil’s
(4) As Campion and
his party were approaching England, a Papal force of Spanish and Italian
troops led by Dr Nicholas Sander (or Sanders) acting as Papal Nuncio landed
in Ireland to assist the Second Desmond Rebellion. The ultimate aim was
to topple Elizabeth. The English quickly vanquished the invaders
and massacred all five hundred soldiers involved. Waugh:
“Ireland stood in a very different relation to the Holy See from that of
England and Wales…. Ireland was, in feudal law, unquestionably a Papal fief,
and had always been recognized as such by the English monarchy…. The Pope had
a legal right of interference such as Elizabeth never enjoyed in the Netherlands”
(89-90). TLS disagrees at length and in detail. DG:
So much academic and nationalist passion has been poured into debates about
Ireland’s status as a Papal fief, about when the Pope granted Ireland to the
Kings of England, to which Kings or Queens he granted it, and whether the
Pope, having freely made the grant, could freely withdraw what he had
granted, that no brief comment can be useful. Suffice to note the irony that
Edmund Campion’s Historie of Ireland, which virulently abuses the
Irish (and which Waugh extravagantly praises), lists “nine separate claims” in support of England’s sovereignty over
Ireland. Waugh, by contrast, negates Tudor claims to Ireland
by asserting the Pope’s “legal right of interference.”
Whether or not the Pope had a
“legal right” to invade Ireland, the political reality was that England had
no effective control over what Campion calls “simple Ireland”; and in a world
divided into Protestant and Catholic power blocs—very similar in their
operation to the “Communist” and “Free World” power blocs recently engaged in
the Cold War—the Pope was at least as entitled to help the Irish Catholics
against Protestant England as Elizabeth was to send large armies to the
Protestant Netherlands to assist their struggle against Catholic Spain.
In another substantive review,
Father H. Chadwick, S.J., who shares Waugh’s "Catholic" perspective
(he is also very perceptive about the “art” of Edmund Campion),
nevertheless points out “minor inaccuracies here and there, though they
seldom jump to the eye” (1). Waugh:
“The last thing [Philip] wanted was to go to war … with the English, whose
formidable spirit he knew from the days when he had been their king” (96). Chadwick:
“Philip II, though married to Mary, was never actually ‘king’ of England,
much as he wished and tried to become so.” DG: True, but a fine
point. The marriage treaty gave Mary’s titles to Philip; Acts of Parliament
carried both names and coins both heads to express the fact that Mary and
Philip were joint rulers, and Philip, as King of Naples, was a king in his
own right. Waugh perhaps should have circumvented the difficulty of finding a
title for Philip by writing, “from the days when he had ruled England with
Mary.” (2) Waugh: “Dr Richard Smith of Merton was made [first
Chancellor of the university at Douai]” (49). Chadwick: “Mr
Waugh can at least plead the authority of T. F. Knox … when he makes an
Englishman, Dr Richard Smith, the first Chancellor of Douai University (1st
Ed. 53) – an honour which belongs rather to M. Wallerand Hangouart.” DG:
In this case Waugh appears to be right and Father Chadwick wrong. According
to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Dr Richard Smith was the first
Chancellor of the University at Douai; while according to Timothy Chesters,
M. Wallerand Hangouart was its first Rector.
(3) Waugh: “[Father Robert Persons] composed the Spiritual
Directory, which has proved a text book of sturdy piety to thousands of
Catholics up to the present day” (79). Chadwick: “[Father
Persons was the] author of the ‘Christian Directory’ – a classic
inadvertently styled by Mr Waugh (1st Ed. 85) the Spiritual
Directory.” DG: An obvious slip.
No doubt there are more errors in Edmund
Campion than those identified by the two reviewers cited above. Waugh
himself amended the American Edition (1946), the Second [British] Edition
(1947), Penguin (1953) and finally the Third [British] Edition (1961): he
also progressively removed the end-of-chapter “Notes”--of which he said he
had "long been greatly ashamed" because he had "scamped them
at the time"--and the “List of
Works Consulted” that feature in the First Edition (1935); he rewrote an
ambiguous sentence regarding Catholic priests distributing consecrated hosts
to non-Catholics, made some deletions and additions, corrected a few
spellings, changed “Salesian” (a member of the Salesian religious
order) to “Silesian” (a resident of Silesia), brought a few details up to
date in the light of new information and removed a typically “indiscreet”
sentence that reveals that Father Persons S.J. was reputed the son of
his parish priest. The changes to various editions are fully set
out in a forthcoming issue of The Book Collector. Surprisingly,
however, Waugh corrected none of the historical slips discussed above.
How, then, evaluate the level of
error and the significance of the errors found in Edmund Campion?
Readily conceding that an historian of the period might discover more
weaknesses than those identified here, to this writer the mistakes and slips
discussed above are neither numerous enough nor obtrusive enough to become a
characterizing feature. As Father Chadwick says, “they seldom jump to
the eye.” On the other hand, the TLS reviewer might have noted that
each of the errors he identified betrayed a Catholic perspective. As the
discussion of each mistake indicates, all are peripheral, none is simply
crass, none vitiates an important point being made. Some errors oversimplify
a complex situation, as in the case of the adoption of the Gregorian
Calendar; some enter into very controversial territory, as in the case of the
Pope’s rights in Ireland; some are trivial, as in the case of the
Chancellor/Rector of the university in Douai; almost all blur rather than
blatantly falsify an event.
But the seven errors are a fact.
Do they indicate an unfortunate level of ignorance, or a failure to take
care, on Waugh’s part? Not writing as an advocate, but seeking to be fair, I
incline to balance the shortcomings that have been pointed out against the
praise accorded by his most knowledgeable and exacting critics. The TLS
reviewer of Edmund Campion, who not only pointed out errors but also
carefully emphasized that he did “not enjoy … the same Weltanschauung”
as Waugh, nevertheless wrote: “Mr Waugh is pretty well read in the proper
authorities [and] better versed than most writers on the period in its
religious dialectic.” Father Chadwick, while conscious of errors, was
equally generous about Waugh’s level of knowledge: he praises Edmund
Campion for holding “a wealth of sifted learning.” The words are well
chosen. Waugh made no claim to “scholarship” or original research. He took
the structure of his biography from Richard Simpson’s Edmund Campion
and made full use of a range of specific authorities on the background of
each aspect of Campion’s life. He wrote a vivid and moving “short, popular
life” by carefully “sifting” the nuggets from the mass of information
available, for the most part reliably.
 Edmund Campion
appeared in five significant editions in Waugh’s lifetime. First Edition:
Edmund Campion: A
Longmans, Green, 1935); American Edition: Edmund Campion
(Boston: Little, Brown, 1946); Second [British] Edition: Edmund
Campion (London: Hollis
and Carter, 1947); Penguin: Edmund Campion (London: Penguin,
1953); Third Edition: Edmund Campion (London: Longmans, Green,
1961). Waugh made changes to each new edition. (Page references will be made
parenthetically to Third Edition because it incorporates the changes made
to earlier editions and makes several new changes. References to other
editions will be specified.)
 Edmund Wilson, “Books: Lesser Books by
Brilliant Writers,” rev. of Edmund Campion by Evelyn Waugh and The
Condemned Playground by Cyril Connolly, New Yorker 22 (13 July
1946): 81. Wilson refers to a very funny spoof of English history, W. C. Sellar and R. J. Yeatman, 1066
and All That: A memorable history of England comprising all the parts you can
remember, including 103 Good Things, 5 Bad Kings and 2 Genuine Dates
(London: Methuen, 1930).
 Thomas M. McCoog, S.J., ed., The
Reckoned Expense: Edmund Campion and the Early English Jesuits: Essays in
celebration of the first centenary of Campion Hall, Oxford (1896-1996)
(Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1996), xiv. Without specifying errors, Father McCoog
writes: “Although [Waugh] received assistance from Father Leo Hicks, S.J. [a
noted scholar], there are still a number of irritating historical errors [in Edmund
 Richard Simpson, Edmund Campion:
Jesuit Protomartyr of England, 1866 (London: Burns and Oates,
 James V. Holleran, A Jesuit
Challenge: Edmund Campion’s Debates at the Tower of London in 1581
(New York: Fordham University Press, 1999). Holleran adopts an historical
viewpoint close to that of Professor J. E. Neale, who was strongly
sympathetic to the Elizabethan settlement.
 Gerard Kilroy, Edmund Campion: Memory
and Transcription (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005).
 McCoog, Reckoned Expense,
 E.g., Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of
the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400-c.1580 (New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1992), The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and
Rebellion in an English Village (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001),
and Fires of Faith: Catholic England under Mary Tudor (London: Yale University
Press, 2009); Judith M. Richards, Mary Tudor (London: Routledge,
2008); Anna Whitelock, Mary Tudor: England’s First Queen (London:
Bloomsbury, 2009); Linda Porter, Mary Tudor: The First Queen (London:
 Leo Hicks, S.J., “Wanted: A New and True History of
Queen Elizabeth,” The Month, March 1930: 212-17. The
scholarly Father Hicks was Waugh’s principal mentor in writing Edmund
 G. R. Elton, “1555: A Political
Retrospect,” in The Reformation Crisis, ed. Joel Hurstfield (London:
Edward Arnold, 1965), 72-78. While allowing that the English Reformation
“owed something to the spiritual needs of the people,” Elton insists that it
originated “in a political revolution,” a fact that “only the wilfully blind
would deny.” F. M. Powicke, The Reformation in England (London: Oxford
University Press, 1941), 1: “The one definite thing that can be said about
the Reformation in England is that it was an act of State.”
 E.g., Alan Gordon Smith, William
Cecil: The Power behind Elizabeth (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
and Co., 1934); Hilaire Belloc, How the Reformation Happened (London:
Jonathan Cape, 1928), Chap. 4, “The English Accident,” 90-120.
 Kilroy, Memory and
 Hicks, “New and True History,” 215.
 Peter Quennell, “Emperors, Heroes, Saints,” New Statesman and
Nation, 28 Sept. 1935: 422.
 Charles J. Rolo, “Evelyn Waugh:
The Best and the Worst,” Atlantic 194 (Oct. 1954), 84. See also
Nicholas Griffin, “Ethical Responsibility and Historical Biography,” Journal
of Applied Philosophy 6.1 (1989): 26: “Of course it is easy to find
examples of extreme bias in biographies. I dislike singling out a particular
author, but Evelyn Waugh’s biography of Edmund Campion … springs readily to
mind, even though Waugh was not distinguished as a dispassionate biographer.
But his zealous Catholic viewpoint no doubt encouraged Waugh to press Campion
into posthumous support for a proselytising and rhetorical treatment of his own
 Donat Gallagher, “Evelyn Waugh's Edmund
Campion and ‘Lady Southwell's Letter,’” Connotations 20.1
 Henry Hallam, The
Constitutional History of England from the Accession of Henry VII to the
Death of George II (London: Harper and Brothers, 1854), Vol. I, 143.
 Arnold Oskar Meyer, England
and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth (London: Kegan Paul,
Trench, Trubner, 1916), 151-53.
 Rose Macaulay, “Evelyn Waugh” in the Best and Worst series, Horizon
14 (Dec. 1946): 368-70.
 “Edmund Campion,” rev. of Edmund
Campion, by Evelyn Waugh, Times Literary Supplement, 3 Oct. 1935: 606.
 Colm Lennon, “Edmund
Campion’s Historie of Ireland and Reform in Tudor Ireland,” in Reckoned
 Father H. Chadwick, S.J., rev. of Edmund
Campion, by Evelyn Waugh, Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu 6
 Timothy Chesters, “Demonology on
the Margins: Robert Du Triez’s Les Ruses, finesses and impostures des
espritz malins (1563),” Renaissance Studies 21.3 (June 2007):
 Evelyn Waugh, letter to A. S. B.
Glover of Penguin Books, 4 February 1953.
by James Morris
taking his leave,
Before he left,
His right hand in his left sleeve,
His left hand at his right breast.
Translating Latin text,
Talking to the man up the ladder,
Viola Chasm on the phone?
was a puzzle.
Lord Copper/Robert Maxwell
I could tell he was a bully--
The pension fund wasn't,
Only a few coppers left in the coffers.
The after-dinner speaker,
Exhorting the assembled company--
At his own dinner!
To support his limited company!
Pure, unalloyed Copper.
The British worker should
Singing the praises of European
One huge cop out--
Covered over with copper,
His face in his own newspapers.
Everyone turning a blind eye,
The Labour Party coppering it.
A fair cop
Falling off the yacht.
He got away with it,
Just before the coppers came.
liked to soak up the local colour--
'Two brown thumbs in the mayonnaise'
WOULD WILLIAM WANT FLASH FACTS
HAND UNTOUCHED BY TRANSFERRING TELEGRAM UNNATURAL
of a Scoop
French journalists in a flurry, Corker in a hurry,
Shumble, Pigge, Whelper all a-worry.
the rain turning the mud to slurry,
At Shumble,Whelper, Pigge's discomfort,
Erik Olafsen, the heavy Swede,
FEELS their need,
With heart bleeding, eyes pleading,
He stares at the horizon (clouds receding)
Into the infinite.
Along with his kit--
He wearily dragged it through the Second World War.
Then into the Cabinet--
Adding to the weight of responsibility.
When the Sixties came--
More ‘emotional baggage’ added.
The Telegraph years …
Weary of its burden his aged frame.
The ‘Dear Bill’ letters were added to Boot.
by Robert Murray
University of Oklahoma
recent television ad shows a young man looking sadly from his two-door car to
his pregnant wife and then resolutely pulling at the back of the car until it
turns into a sedan.
Something like this seems to have happened to Hardcastle’s car in Brideshead
Revisited. It first apears as “an open, two-seater Morris-Cowley”
(Little, Brown, 1946, 23). Later, having received an invitation to
dinner at Rex Mottram’s, Sebastian, Ryder, and Boy Mulcaster, “having got
leave for the nght from our colleges … drove off on the London road in
Hardcastle’s car” (112). We now have three people in a two-seater.
Later the three drive to the Old Hundredth in “the car” (114), presumably the
same one. Later, having acquired three women from the club, the six drive
away: “Sebastian took the wheel and the two women sat one on the other beside
him, to show him the way. Effie and Mulcaster and I sat in the back” (116).
As Mark Twain said in “Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offenses,” we cannot too
much admire this miracle of six people in a two-seater.
Gallagher suggested that the car has a dickey or what Americans call a rumble
seat, something that folds upward from the rear of the main compartment to
provide additional if not very comfortable seating. A glance at the
photograph in this link, http://gallery.mudpuddle.co.nz/v/speterso/MorrisFinal.png.html,
refutes this speculation.
Clearly Waugh had forgotten about the specifications of the original car.
Probably he was drawing on his memory of the incident on which this last
scene was based: his arrest with Matthew Ponsonby in the "Ponsonby
family Ford" in 1925 (Diaries 206). The car may have been similar
to the one in this photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1925.ford.model.t.arp.750pix.jpg.
In this case, fact overrode internal consistency.
Additional Waugh Bibliography: Reviews of Brideshead
by Alexander Waugh
following items are press cuttings sent to Evelyn Waugh at the time of
publication with newspaper title and date. With three exceptions (noted
below), they do not appear in A Bibliography of Evelyn Waugh.
Barber, Frank D. "Picture of the Nobility." Yorkshire Evening
News (City Edition), 28 May 1945.
"B. D." [The Rev. B. Dickinson, MA]. "Total Waugh." Beda
Review [n.d.]: 23-24.
Betjeman, John. "Here's One Novelist I Can Read Again." Daily
Herald, 6 June 1945.
Bowen, Elizabeth. "With Silent Friends." Tatler and Bystander,
13 June 1945: 342.
Brady, Charles A. "‘Brideshead’ Nominated for Literary
Immortality." Buffalo Evening News, 5 Jan. 1946.
Brogan, Colm. "Reflections on Truth and Fiction." Glasgow
Observer, 3 Aug. 1945.
Butcher, Fanny. "Publisher of a Waugh Novel Gets a Wider
Readership." Chicago Tribune, 30 Dec. 1945.
"Challenge to Paganism." Universe, 6 July 1945.
Chamberlain, John. "The New Books." Harpers, Feb. 1946.
Church, Richard. "The Roman View." John O' London's Weekly,
15 June 1945.
“C. M.” "Evelyn Waugh Offers Novel of Modern Decay." Milwaukee
Journal, 6 Jan. 1946.
DeJong, David Cornel. "Brideshead Revisited." Providence
[RI] Journal, 6 Jan 1946.
Dickens, Monica. "Mr Waugh revisits his pagans." Sunday
Chronicle, 2 May 1945.
Donahue, Robert Joyce. "Religious and Satirical." Boston Globe,
2 Jan. 1946.
"Evelyn Waugh's Shadow Play." Chicago Daily News, 2 Jan.
Gold, Mike. "A More Human Moral Code." Daily Worker [NY], 13
Hartley, L. P. "The Literary Lounger." Sketch, 13 June 1945:
“H. P. E.” “Paterna domus, mira infelicitas.” Punch, 27 June 1945.
Igoe, W. J. “Catholic Fiction and Six Catholic Novels.” Catholic Herald,
20 July 1945. [Bibliography includes this item as
B572: “Igoe, W. J. R. of BR. Catholic
Herald, 20 July, p. 3].
Igoe, W. J. "The Catholic Novelist has an Answer." Glasgow
Observer, 15 June 1945.
Igoe, W. J. "More Notes on the Catholic Novel." Glasgow Herald,
10 May 1945.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. "Disintegration of a Family and the World That
Made It." San Francisco Chronicle, 30 Dec. 1945.
Jaques, Florence Page. Saturday Review of Literature, 18 May 1946.
Lawrie, Jean. "British Marine Hailed as Genius among Writers.” Catholic
Herald Citizen [Milwaukee], 2 March 1946: 11.
"Life, Religion and Neurosis." Truth, 6 July 1945: 12.
North, Sterling. "Sterling North Reviews Evelyn Waugh's Finest
Novel." New York Post, 3 Jan. 1946.
Quennell, Peter. "Waugh and peace." Overseas Daily Mail, 9
June 1945. [B561 has 2 June].
Robinson, Ted. "Evelyn Waugh's First in Three Years." Cleveland
Plain Dealer Pictorial Magazine, 6 Jan. 1946: 12.
Shackleton, Edith. "A Memorable Novel." The Lady, 21 June
Spring, Howard. “The Best Evelyn Waugh Novel I’ve Read: Howard Spring on Books.”
Sunday Graphic, 24 June 1945.
[Bibliography B569 is “Spring, Howard. R of BR.
Evening Standard, 24 June.]
Spring, Howard. "Mr Waugh's New Novel." Country Life, 15
“Why must it end like this?” Evening Standard, 15 June 1945.
Woods, Mary Thomas. "Book-of-the-Month." San Francisco Argonaut,
19 Jan. 1946.
Spanish Translations of Works by Evelyn Waugh:
by Carlos Villar Flor
University of La Rioja
no translator appears in a later edition, it is assumed that the translation
is the same, even though the publisher may have changed. As a rule, a
different translator implies a different version, but one version may have
different subsequent titles, or different versions may have same
title. In the case of Black Mischief, for instance, the version
is always the same although the title was modified in later editions.
Decline and Fall: Decadencia y caída. Trans. Floreal Mazía. Buenos
Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1955, 1982. Madrid: Aguilar, 1966. Barcelona:
Anagrama, 1984, 1986.
Vile Bodies: Cuerpos
viles. Trans. Floreal Mazía. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana,
1955. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1990. Barcelona: Círculo de lectores, 2003.
Black Mischief: Fechoría
Negra. Trans. Rosa S. de Naveira. Barcelona: José Janés, 1950. Barrabasada
negra. Trans. Juan García Puente. Madrid: Aguilar, 1966. Merienda de
negros. Trans. Juan García Puente. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1985, 1990, 2008.
Barcelona: Cahoba: 2006.
A Handful of Dust: Un
puñado de polvo. Trans. P. J. Eastaway. Barcelona: Aymá, 1943. Trans.
Josefina Gaínza. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1957. Trans. Juan
Gómez Casas. Madrid: Aguilar, 1966. Trans. Josefina Gaínza. Madrid: Alianza,
1972, 1985. Trans. Carlos Manzano de Frutos. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1995,
1998. Barcelona: RBA, 2009.
Scoop: Primicia. Trans.
Horacio Laurora. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1947. Madrid: Aguilar,
1966. ¡Noticia bomba! Una novela de periodistas. Trans. Antonio Mauri.
Barcelona: Anagrama, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1997. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores,
2002. Madrid: El País, 2003.
Put Out More Flags: Más
Banderas. Trans. Horacio Laurora. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana,
1947. Madrid: Alianza, 1974.
Work Suspended: Obra
suspendida y otros cuentos. Trans. Guillermo Whitelow. Buenos Aires:
Emecé, 1952. Obra suspendida. Trans. María Maestro Cuadrado. Treviana
Work Suspended and Other
Stories: Incidente en Azania. Trans. Jaime Zulaika. Barcelona:
Argos Vergara, 1983. En guardia; El amor en tiempos de crisis; El
segundón. Trans. Jaime Zulaika. Barcelona: Debolsillo, 2000.
Retorno a Brideshead. Trans. Clara Diament. Buenos Aires: Editorial
Sudamericana, 1948. Madrid: Aguilar, 1966. Trans. Caroline Phipps. Barcelona:
Argos Vergara, 1982; Círculo de lectores, 1983. Barcelona: Tusquets, 1987,
1990, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2008, 2010. Barcelona: RBA, 1992, 1995.
Scott-King's Modern Europe: La
nueva Neutralia. Trans. J. R. Wilcock. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Criterio,
1953. Neutralia. Trans. Carlos Villar Flor. Palencia: Menoscuarto,
The Loved One: Los seres
queridos. Trans. Pedro Lecuona. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana,
1964. Trans. Helena Valenti. Barcelona: Argos Vergara, 1983. Barcelona: Seix
Barral, 1986. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1990. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores,
Helena: Elena. Trans.
Pedro Lecuona. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1954, 1990. Barcelona:
Edhasa, 1990, 2006. Barcelona; Altaya, 1996, 1997. Barcelona: Salvat, 1998.
Barcelona: Planeta-De Agostini, 2003. Madrid: El País, 2005.
Love Among the Ruins: Amor
entre ruinas. Trans. Julieta Mendes Gonçalves. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1954.
Men at Arms: Hombres en
armas. Trans. Miguel Alfredo Olivera. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1954. Trans.
Carlos Villar Flor. Madrid: Cátedra, 2003.
The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold: La
odisea de Gilbert Pinfold. Trans. María Inés Oyela de Estrada. Buenos
Aires: Emecé, 1959. La prueba de fuego de Gilbert Pinfold.
Trans. Miguel Martínez-Lage. Madrid: Homo Legens, 2007.
Officers and Gentlemen: Oficiales
y caballeros. Trans. Carlos Villar Flor. Madrid: Cátedra, 2010.
Unconditional Surrender: Rendición
incondicional. Trans. Carlos Villar Flor and Gabriel Insausti. Madrid:
Labels, A Mediterranean Journal: Etiquetas, Viaje por el Mediterráneo.
Trans. Jordi Fibla. Barcelona: Península, 2002.
Remote People: Gente
remota. Trans. Paula García Manchón. La Coruña: Ediciones del viento,
2003. Barcelona: Debolsillo, 2009.
Ninety-Two Days: Noventa
y dos días. Trans. Manuel Piñón and Paula Pascual. La Coruña: Ediciones
del Viento, 2005.
Robbery Under Law: Robo
al amparo de la ley. Trans. F. José Mampara. Madrid: Homo
A Tourist in Africa: Un
turista en Africa. Trans. J. Ferrer Aleu. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés,
1964, 1966, 1970, 1976.
Edmund Campion: El jesuita y la reina. Trans. Estela Lorca
de Rojo. Santiago de Chile: Nuevo Extremo, 1960. Edmund Campion.
Trans. Ignacio Peyró. Madrid: Homo Legens, 2009.
Ronald Knox: Ronald
Knox. Trans. Gloria Esteban Villar. Madrid: Palabra: 2005.
A Little Learning: Una
educación incompleta. Trans. Miguel Martínez-Lage. Barcelona: Libros del
Asteroide, 2007; Debolsillo, 2009.
Abstracts of Japanese Essays on Evelyn Waugh, 1998-2010
by Yoshiharu Usui
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Chichi eno nagai michinori－Eyurin Wo Meiyonoken sanbusaku
kenkyu [A Long Way to Fatherhood－A
Study of Evelyn Waugh’s Sword of Honour trilogy].” Seikei Jinbun Kenkyu [Seikei Journal of the Graduate School of Humanities]
7 (1998): 71-87.
Abstract: Evelyn Waugh’s ideal image
of a man was a gentleman father. Waugh’s horror was not to become a gentleman
father. When his first marriage broke up, Waugh thought the cause was his
immaturity, and he traveled to British colonial frontiers as penance. Waugh
remarried and became a father at last. Waugh could not find the ideal world
of a gentleman even in the countryside. Waugh joined the army to seek the
ideal. However, Waugh could not find it there either. In the end, Waugh found
the image of the ideal gentleman in Catholics who achieve their mission
through personal love. By depicting Guy Crouchback as the protagonist, Waugh
makes his trilogy into a confession of his wandering soul’s attempt to reach
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no shosetsu niokeru Don
Kihote teki yoso –shokishousetsu wo chushin ni [Influences of Don
Quixote on Evelyn Waugh’s Novels–Mainly Early Novels].” Seikei Jinbun Kenkyu [Seikei Journal of the Graduate School of Humanities]
7 (1999): 65-76.
Abstract: Evelyn Waugh’s novels
are influenced by Cervantes’s Don Quixote. Cervantes wrote Don
Quixote during the decline of the Spanish Empire and depicted its
corruption. Waugh also depicts corruption of the world after World War
I. Don Quixote read too many chivalry stories and went mad. He took
himself to be a knight and wandered about, fighting for justice. He
finally came back to sanity and died as a good Christian gentleman. The
journey of Don Quixote is an important motif of Waugh’s novels from Decline
and Fall to the war trilogy. The most important influence of
Cervantes is the description of reality. Cervantes depicted life as it
is without explanation. Waugh inherited this detachment from Cervantes.
Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no Shousetsu ni Okeru Ford Madox Ford no Parade’s
End no Eikyou” [“The Influence of Ford Madox Ford’s Parade’s End
Tetralogy on Evelyn Waugh’s Novels”]. Seikei Humanities Research
Journal 8 (2000): 39-56.
letters to Diana Cooper, Evelyn Waugh was reading Parade’s End while
he was writing Sword of Honour. In both novels the battle scenes
are few. Both authors describe protagonists’ private lives during
war. Ford did not appeal to readers on behalf of his ideas and
principles. But in this tetralogy, he suggests that war is not
desirable. He assumes an attitude of detachment from battle. It
seems that he influenced Waugh to describe war with the same attitude. Parade’s
End may mean the end of the good old world of order. Commercialism
and the rising middle class invade the upper class. This theme
is common in Waugh’s novels. Their wives’ lies and betrayal also ruin
the protagonists’ careers and lives. Graham Greene, who highly praised
Ford, said that the novel is an unlimited form that avoids purification. Ford’s
novels have simplicity, roughness, and vitality. Waugh’s novels are
consistently farcical and anti-Bildungsroman.
Sai, Takanori. “Evurin Wo saku Yori ookuno kokki wo ni tsuite”
[“About Put Out More Flags by Evelyn Waugh”]. Hanazono Gakuen
Daigaku Kenkyu Kiyo [Bulletin of Hanazono University] 4 (2001):
Abstract: Since Evelyn Waugh
published Put Out More Flags during the war, it had
currency. Waugh wove suggestive description into this novel, so it stays
close to fact. Waugh also used the form of picaresque novels to make
POMF more lustrous. Picaresque novels allow readers to enjoy picaros’
bad behavior. The form is suitable for a writer like Waugh: he thinks
that everyone has defects and does not punish people of high status. He
concludes that Basil’s and Ambrose’s follies are common to all of
us. The author and his readers are not exceptions. This is the
difference from satirical novels, which criticize particular
individuals. Moreover, through the form of picaresque novels, Waugh
described people’s way of living in the war. Some are active in the
crisis while others are passive. Waugh suggests that even people who
were foolish in the past are better than atheists who only argue in the
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no Brideshead Revisited Kenkyu--Naze
Charles wa Genki wo Torimodoshitanoka? ‘Seishinbunsekiteki Aprochi.’”
[“A Study of Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited.”] Seikei
Humanities Research Journal 9 (2001): 55-70.
Abstract: Charles Ryder ended up ‘looking
unusually cheerful.’ Why? This novel can be interpreted through
Freud’s theory of “Fort” and “Da” (“gone” and “there”) in Beyond the
Pleasure Principle (1920). His grandson took a wooden reel attached
to a piece of string, and threw it over the edge of his cot, so that it
disappeared. After saying “o-o-o-o,” he would pull it back to himself
and say “da.” Freud theorized that this game allowed the boy to manage
anxiety about the absence of his mother. By controlling the actual presence
and absence of an object, he was able to manage the virtual presence of his
mother. The Fort/Da game was the child’s invention of symbolism. In
human psychological development, symbolism coincides with the emergence of
language, or the child’s entry into the field of culturally symbolic sounds
and words. The relationship between Charles and Brideshead is like the
Fort/Da game seeking his mother. The substitutes for his mother have
come and gone there. In other words, he was in the Oedipal
phase. Finally he opens his eyes to the Christian faith. It
represents the principle of fatherhood. He finally passes the Oedipal
phase and becomes spiritually mature.
Yamasaki, Mayumi. “Evelyn Waugh no sakuhin ni
mirareru Dickens no eikyo [Influences of Dickens on Evelyn Waugh’s works].” Kobe Tokiwa Tanki Daigaku Kiyo [Bulletin of Kobe Tokiwa College] 24
Evelyn Waugh loved Dickens’s works from childhood, and Waugh’s works show the
influence of Dickens. Especially Waugh’s first novel, Decline and Fall,
shows many Dickens influences. Decline and Fall owes
plot and characters to Nicholas Nickleby. Comparison of both
novels reveals the influence. Both novels can be categorized as
Bildungsroman. In common are descriptions of characters, names that
express characters, exaggerations of bodily characteristics, and characters
that cause laughter. However, though Nicholas Nickleby is a success
story, Decline and Fall is literally about the protagonist
falling. The cynicism comes from the difference in the times. After World War
I, people could not believe in a happy story in the Victorian age. An
important value of the nineteenth century, gentlemanliness, collapses in
Waugh’s works. Nicholas persists in the pride of a gentleman, but Paul throws
it away easily. This leads to the absence of model fatherhood and the
collapse of the patriarchy in the twentieth century.
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold
Kenkyu―‘Ido’ E no Tabi” [“A Study of Evelyn Waugh’s The Ordeal of
Gilbert Pinfold”]. Seikei Humanities Research Journal 10
Abstract: This essay analyzes The
Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold psychoanalytically. Because of ill health,
insomnia and instability of mind, Mr. Pinfold is advised to go to the
tropics. He takes a passenger liner, the Caliban. In
Shakespeare’s Tempest, Caliban is the son of a witch and a
manifestation of wildness. Boarding the Caliban suggests that
Pinfold’s unconscious will be revealed. From the postcolonial view,
Britain, an old ruler, is a father to its colonies. Going from Britain
to Rangoon is metaphorical regression from father to son. The
construction of this ship resembles the functions of consciousness in Freud’s
psychoanalysis. Mr. Pinfold’s cabin is the ego. The place under his
cabin is unconscious desire, the id. The dining room is the
superego. Mr. Pinfold’s voyage was his own psychoanalysis. His
oppressed desire intrudes upon consciousness. A ship stands for the
female from the psychoanalytic point of view. Leaving the ship means
leaving motherhood and compromising with the Name-of-the-Father. Men
acquired language through this process. The symptoms of neurosis would
be expected to appear again. However, this achievement is growth to a
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no The Loved One
Kenkyu” [“A Study of Evelyn Waugh’s The Loved One”]. Seikei
Humanities Research Journal 11 (2003): 37-46.
Abstract: This essay analyzes
Waugh’s The Loved One with Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytic
theory. The protagonist, Dennis Barlow, unexpectedly succeeded as a poet
during World War II. At first he wants to be a successful poet, which
means he tries to identify with the image people have of a poet, as a child
in Lacan’s ‘the Mirror Stage’ tries to identify with the image in the mirror. Dennis
is, in Lacan’s terms, ‘the imaginary order.’ Thanks to his success, he
is invited to Hollywood. Hollywood is ruled by powerful producers, in
Lacan’s terms, the Name-of-the-Father, the fundamental element in the
structure of symbolic order. In other words, Hollywood is the symbolic
order. To spiritually mature in Lacan’s terms, one needs the real
father, the subject’s biological father. At the time of the Oedipus
complex, he intervenes as the one who castrates the child. This intervention
saves the child from ensuing anxiety. Without it, the child requires a
phobic object as a symbolic substitution for the real father. Dennis
easily throws away his mirror image as a poet and becomes a pets’
mortician. Not only Dennis but also other characters lack a real father
and cannot mature.
Kurahashi, Yumiko. “Henai Bungakukan 3 Pinfold no Shiren Evurin
Wo [Partial Library 3 The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold by Evelyn Waugh].”
Gunzo [Gunzo Monthly] (Tokyo) 59.9 (2004): 322-28.
Gilbert Pinfold has auditory hallucinations on the ship to Ceylon. The
hallucinations are based on real events, and each episode is like a piece of
the novel. What sort of mischief will the villains make next? How
will they abuse Pinfold? One finds Waugh’s superior critical spirit in
the backbiting. Pinfold never appeals and entreats someone, nor is he
distressed as a pitiable victim. The villains are in Pinfold’s head, so
he has to fight them alone. This hardship is his
‘ordeal.’ Pinfold’s strong spirit is related to Catholicism. However,
his faith is a center of gravity, a source of stability, rather than the
thing he clings to. Waugh casually writes that Pinfold went to mass on
Sunday when he reached Colombo. Both Waugh and Pinfold get on with the
world through peculiar methods. Neither nurses a grievance in
misfortune, nor do they become uneasy in isolation.
Usui, Yoshiharu. “Evelyn Waugh no A Handful of
Dust Kenkyu [A Study of Evelyn Waugh’s A Handful of Dust].” Seikei Jinbun Kenkyu [Seikei Journal of the Graduate School of Humanities]
12 (2004): 47-56.
Evelyn Waugh’s A Handful of Dust is a tragedy wherein a man cannot
subjectify himself by obeying the symbolism of the Law. Tony Last does not
believe in Christianity. He goes to church only as a custom. From a
psychoanalytical point of view, a child must obey the Name-of-the-Father and
enter the symbolic to become an adult. Tony does not obey the
Name-of-the-Father in the Christian world. He is held captive by Mr.
Todd and forced to read Dickens’s novels. In the end, Tony obeys Mr. Todd’s
orders, the Name-of-the Father in the Amazon. Ironically Tony subjectifies
himself in captivity. A Handful of Dust shows not only fear but also
hope. In an alternative version in Harper’s Bazaar, Tony reunites with
his wife, Brenda.
Takao. “Futekusarete―Ivurin Wo no sensou bungaku” [“To Be
Sulky―Evelyn Waugh’s War Literature”]. Tekusuto no chihei: Mori
Haruhide Kyojyu koki kinen ronbunshu [Horizon of Text: Treatises for
Professor Haruhide Mori’s Seventieth Birthday]. Ed. Takao Tomiyama, et
al. Tokyo: Eihousha, 2005. 422-38.
Abstract: Waugh’s works have
overwhelming force: readers cannot decide whether to be angry, to laugh, to
criticize Waugh, or to be astonished at Waugh’s skill. Waugh did not
write chaotic novels like Graham Greene. Most of Waugh’s novels treat
wars, and they do not divide justice from vice, life from death. Even
his genuine war novel, Sword of Honour, is filled with black humor
that confuses readers. Another trait of Waugh’s novels is preeminent
conceptual skill. He can ridicule any situation and parody
it. Waugh’s targets are mainly the English middle and upper classes,
especially their attitudes toward religion, money, and sex. The
literature and art of Waugh’s times are also his targets. He is a
unique, isolated writer. Waugh’s uniqueness comes from his sulky
spirit. He refused to mature as a writer. This spirit is consistent
with burlesque reciprocation. Faith exists calmly but resolutely, and it
does not need to be proclaimed loudly. We can always return to it, like
Sebastian and Julia in Brideshead Revisited.
Yamasaki, Mayumi. “Rysouno Wagaya o Motomete: A Handful
of Dust ni Okeru Tony Last no Sekai” [“In Search of a Transfigured Hetton
Abbey: The World of Tony Last in A Handful of Dust”]. Bulletin
of Kobe Tokiwa College 27 (2006): 9-18.
Abstract (by the author): Tony Last
in A Handful of Dust is a happy man who has got enough money and loves
his estate. He is kind to his beautiful wife and proud of his son and
heir. Hetton Abbey is where he has grown up, and he hopes that in his
son’s day his house will recover its fame. We gradually get to know that
Tony loves Hetton alone and he is playing the role of Victorian
patriarch. His wife Brenda leaves him soon after their only son died in
an unfortunate accident. She understands that to Tony, Hetton comes
first, and he needs all other things, including her, to make Hetton
prosper. After his son’s death, the world seems to be against
Tony. He sails for Brazil in search of a city, which he pictures as a
transfigured Hetton. Instead of arriving in the city, Tony is captured
by the illiterate Mr Todd, who loves Dickens. Every day Tony has to
read Dickens’s works aloud, and he has no hope to go back to Hetton. It
is a kind of punishment for his selfish love for Hetton and
himself. However, his dream of shutting out the outside world has been
Yamasaki, Mayumi. "Decline and Fall to Nicholas Nickleby:
Charles Dickens kara Yomitoku Evelyn Waugh [A Comparative Study of Decline
and Fall and Nicholas Nickleby]." Bulletin of Kobe Tokiwa
College 28 (2007): 1-9.
Abstract (by the author): Decline and
Fall owes Nicholas Nickleby in plot and characters. Both are
picaresque novels where young protagonists have various kinds of experiences.
By comparing and contrasting Decline and Fall with Nicholas
Nickleby, we can see clearly what differentiates the two protagonists and
what the differences meant to Waugh. Paul Pennyfeather, a theological student
at Oxford, enjoys a Victorian ordered life achieved by
industry. Innocent as he is, he is sent down and plunged into an
anarchic world, where he encounters a lot of eccentric people. The world
has no ethical order, and men are ridiculously eager to appear to be
gentlemen. Nicholas is also a poor orphan, but he meets good and
reliable substitute fathers who lead him up into a better world, while all
the men Paul meets are irresponsible. After he has been tossed back and
forth in a series of bizarre adventures, Paul just returns where he
started. The fruitless circularity of his experiences leaves Paul
unaffected. Paul is happy with an unchanged life, for he restores his
old Victorian habits. His Victorian middle-class faith reflects Waugh’s.
Arai, Toshiko. "An Observation of the Religious Structure in Brideshead
Revisited by Evelyn Waugh." Kagoshima Junshin Joshi Daigaku
Kokusai Ningengakubu Kiyo [Faculty of International Human Studies of
Kagoshima Immaculate Heart University] 14 (2008): 15-40.
In Evelyn Waugh’s conception of Brideshead Revisited as ‘a religious
fable,’ the tragic story of the house of Marchmain ends on the note of
unchanging hope. Apart from technical details and arguments about
theological or moral themes, Waugh succeeded in making his protagonists appear
to be pilgrims on their way to find the ‘defined purpose’ of their existence
in the maze of God’s design, with the hope of also getting a full view of the
garden at the end of their journey. Waugh tried this method not only on
one central character but also on other characters in complex relationships
in contemporary British society. Critics will never be unanimous in
their evaluation of this work, but still this novel will be read and
discussed as one of the experiments in the twentieth-century English novel.
Notani, Keiji. “Chusei shugisha toshiteno Evurin Wo－Meiyo no ken ni mirareru
Katorikku shinkou” [“Evelyn Waugh as a medieval ideologist－Catholicism in Sword
of Honour ”]. Kiristo kyo bungaku kenkyu [Christian Literature
Studies] 27 (2010): 123-36.
Abstract: The protagonist of Waugh’s Sword
of Honour is Guy Crouchback. His principle is chivalry of the Middle Ages
tied to Catholicism. He belongs to a recusant family. Knowing of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Guy decides to fight for the King. This is chivalrous.
However, Guy’s war ends with Quixotic farce, just as Sir Roger of Waybroke
lost his life in an unholy battle. Guy’s unconditional surrender is to
the plan and providence of God. Guy loses a fight with modern times and changes
a sword of honour to a plow and a hoe. This recalls the back-to-the-land movement led by Catholics. One of
the characteristics of Catholic literature is anti-modernism. Waugh is not an
exception. Waugh’s faith is to believe in the provision of God, which is
also Yoshiharu Usui, “Abstracts of Essays on Waugh in Eigo Seinen/Rising
Generation,” EWNS 39.1 (Spring 2008), for abstracts
of eight Japanese essays that appeared in November 2003.
Decline and Fall, by Evelyn Waugh. The Old Red
Lion Theatre, Islington. Reviewed by Mick Dempsey.
With great anticipation I boarded the train
from Metroland to central London on a bitterly cold December evening. I was
on my way to see Evelyn Waugh’s funniest and finest comic novel, Decline
and Fall, transferred to the stage for the first time. I travelled with a
fellow admirer of Waugh’s work and over a pre-show dinner we discussed the
hurdles to be overcome to satisfy the appetite of someone who had
relished the novel at least ten times. Would such a small cast do justice to
the lunacy and chaos of the story? How faithfully would the script adhere to
Waugh’s exquisite comic dialogue and marvellous plot? What kind of Captain
Grimes would Sylvester McCoy make? Would Professor Otto Silenus make an
appearance? What would the venue be like? We were going to be demanding and
critical members of the audience.
The Old Red Lion was built in 1415 and is nestled in St John Street,
Islington. The theatre itself is housed in the upstairs of the pub. To those
who are familiar with London culture, suffice to say that the Old Red Lion is
a typical central London hostelry: a bit beaten and battered but brimful of
character and characters. At the back of the saloon bar stands a quaint
ticket booth aside a winding staircase that leads up to the small and cosy
60-seat studio theatre. The theatre was apparently converted from a function
room in the late 1970s. The seating consisted of several tiers of what looked
like church pews set at right angles to each other covering two of the four
sides of the room. As we took our seats in the front row, we were struck by
the intimate atmosphere, and we felt we could almost be participants in the
play. Many of the audience relaxed with pints of ale or glasses of wine,
which added to the intimacy of the occasion.
The stage was set as a classroom with blackboards and doors on the walls and
several desks on the bare wooden floorboards. One of the blackboards bore the
graffito “Nil Satis Nisi Optimum”, which coincidentally is the motto of my
football team, Everton, and roughly translates to “nothing but the best is
good enough”. My expectations rose accordingly. Emily Murphy, who was to play
an excellent Florence Fagan and Lady Circumference, stood alone on stage and
chided members of the audience as they took their seats, adding to the
feeling of participation.
The real action began with the entrance of Dr Augustus Fagan, played by an
enthusiastic and imperious Jonathan Hansler. Younger and more dashing than
the Dr Fagan of the novel, he became the pivotal character throughout the
drama, strutting, challenging and looking the audience in the eye as he delivered
some of Waugh’s finest comic soliloquies. A notable example is Dr Fagan’s
rapturous vision of the forthcoming Llanabba school games:
“It is rarely that the scholarly calm of Llanabba gives place to
festival, but when it does taste and dignity shall go unhampered.”
I found myself hungrily anticipating
each approaching line:
“There must be a band.”
“I never heard of such a thing.” said Dingy. “A band
indeed. You’ll be having fireworks next.”
I was grinning like a Cheshire cat. At
times I wanted to stand up and join in the fun.
Michael Lindall was superbly cast as Paul Pennyfeather. Mr Lindall was the
epitome of the young English gentleman and displayed the right balance of
breeding and naiveté attached to Pennyfeather. He was not the essence of the
play nor did he dictate the action. As Waugh stated in the novel,
Pennyfeather was not made to be the hero. At times Pennyfeather really did
seem to be the unwitting and bewildered witness of the fantastic events
unfolding around him. There was barely a second to take stock: one scene
transmuted into another as doors were flung open and slammed shut; desks and
people came and went; a profusion of tweed jackets, elbow patches and brogues
capered about the set, and always it seemed the superiority and omniscience
of Dr Fagan brought a semblance of order and discipline to the chaos and
The chronology was faithful to the novel, although there were some notable
omissions and some small alterations which jarred on me. A drunken Grimes and
not Prendy shot Tangent in the foot, although it did seem reasonable at the
time. I also thought Beste-Chetwynde was pronounced “beast chained”, not
“beast cheating”, as it was pronounced by the cast. Similarly, Sir Wilfred
Lucas-Dockery became Lucas-Doherty. Philbrick’s four-funnel, turbine-driven
liner became The Queen of Hounslow (or some such place) rather than
the anticipated The Queen of Arcady. These were examples of many small
but nonetheless annoying and unnecessary deviations from the original which
didn’t add anything and disturbed my rapture. I realised afterwards that I
had approached this event rather like I used to attend rock concerts: with
the hope of hearing all my old favourites and familiar sounds rendered loud,
live and note-perfect. There were a few bum notes, but overall many familiar
classics were given a new vibrancy with some virtuoso performances.
And so to one of English literature’s great comic characters and anti-heroes:
Captain Edgar Grimes. Portrayed by no less than a former Doctor Who,
Sylvester McCoy, he was a marvellously dishevelled and dissolute, peg-legged
imbecile. He seemed to be wearing one of Waugh’s dog-tooth suits although it
was in a state of atrocious disrepair. There was something rather lightweight
though nonetheless charming about McCoy’s Grimes. Somehow his moral seediness
and desperation didn’t come across (or was not intended to). This incarnation
of Grimes didn’t strike me as “singularly in harmony with the primitive
promptings of humanity”. The end of part 1 concluded with a monologue which
could be described as Grimes’ agony. This was quite moving for members
of the audience (although I realised I was still grinning) and for McCoy, who
appeared to be weeping genuine tears of despair before setting off to “drown
himself”. McCoy also played a peculiarly obsequious and creepy Lucas-Dockery.
There was no trace of the visionary social scientist about him; rather he
came across as a simpering and fawning crank. I came away thinking that an
opportunity had been missed and that Hansler would have made a masterly Sir
Morgan Thomas portrayed a marvellously bewildered
and dithering Prendergast. Again, some of Waugh’s funniest scenes and
cleverest dialogue involve Prendy. In this version of events, he was denied
the privilege of shooting Tangent in the foot. Thomas, I thought, would have
made an excellent Otto Silenus, one character that failed to make an
appearance, much to my disappointment. Silenus is one of my favourites in Decline
and Fall: a minor player but one with huge comic potential. I suppose
some things had to be sacrificed, and the seven cast members were certainly
working at full stretch. Margot Beste-Chetwynde was played by the
attractive Fay Downie. She did an excellent if predictable job. Miss Downie’s
Margot was more overtly vampish than the Margot of the book. Philbrick was well portrayed by a sinister Owen Roberts.
Philbrick’s stories are possibly the greatest treasures of the novel,
vehicles for Waugh’s brilliant and precise comic language, particularly when
he’s lampooning “the lower orders”. Roberts’ and Lindall’s portrayal of
the conversation between Philbrick and Jimmy Drage about “nobbling a toff”
The sparse props and scenery were well chosen and the cast used the stage
very well. However, at times the play seemed like an hour and 40 minutes of a
compendium of sketches. I’m not sure what any “non-Wavians” present would
have thought of it all. I suspect they’d have come out rather confused about
exactly what had happened to whom and why. To those of us who know the book
inside out, it was a more than worthy celebration of Waugh’s comic and
linguistic genius played out quite brilliantly at times. Certainly, audience
and players alike seemed to enjoy themselves. The show was produced by Henry
Filloux-Bennett, the Old Red Lion's artistic director, with assistance from
Stephen Makin, Kellie Spooner and Nick Rogers. The excellent set was designed
by Richard Kent, and the director was Tom King. They did an excellent job in
sending a staunch Wavian home happy although still quite peckish for the
greater substance, precision and cohesion of the novel.
The Cambridge Companion to English Novelists, ed. Adrian Poole.
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 464 pp.
£19.99/$29.99 paperback. Reviewed by Jeffrey Manley.
This collection of essays provides an introduction to the works
of those novelists “who have seemed the most important to their novelist
peers, the richest and most fertile models against whom contemporary and
subsequent writers have sought to measure themselves, from whom to draw
strength: the most valuable to emulate.” A rather tall order. What
they have come up with are twenty-seven novelists from Daniel Defoe to
William Golding. They were drawn from a list of those who were already
dead; the last seven experienced the Second World War. Each novelist is
assigned to an essayist who has written about the subject or others of the
same period. Each essay is about fifteen pages in length, and they are
arranged by the novelists’ dates of birth.
The most interesting selections to readers of this journal will
be those for the twentieth century. These include few surprises: Joseph
Conrad, D. H. Lawrence, E. M. Forster, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf at one
end; Elizabeth Bowen, Henry Green, Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene and
William Golding at the other. It seems strange to include Green, Bowen
and Golding, however, at the expense of Ford Madox Ford, Aldous Huxley,
Anthony Powell, George Orwell and Iris Murdoch. Huxley and Orwell are
dismissed as one-hit wonders, but the others wrote a sustained body of work
that would seem to qualify them for inclusion under the criteria quoted
above. Moreover, several writers might be better qualified for
appearances in the Cambridge Companion volumes devoted to Scottish, Irish or
American novelists (if such volumes are in the works), rather than this
one. Their relegation would have left more room for truly English
writers shoved aside by page limitations.
While the essayists are mostly scholars with academic qualifications, the
author of the Waugh entry, Anthony Lane, is a literary journalist whose
specialty is film reviewing. Waugh may have been fortunate, because the
essay devoted to him is well-written, accessible and entertaining, and
it covers most of his novels. Other essays relating to twentieth-century
novelists (Bowen, Greene and Golding) tend to concentrate on one or two
themes or novels in considerable detail and to ignore or short-change broad
swathes of their subject’s works.
The Waugh essay begins with a two-page summary of why Lane
believes him to be important. He considers Waugh’s place in the “canon”
to be “unstable.” The way he wrote rather than what he wrote
distinguishes Waugh, and writing about such a narrow spectrum of society
brought him into disfavor with some critics. His prose style, however,
“marks him out—in its exactitude, in the curtness of its controlled irony,
and in a fanatical pursuit of the mot juste—as what might be termed
the last of the Augustans.” Although he eschewed modernism, his work
reflects modernist elements such as staccato dialogue and frequent references
to the works of other modernists, such as T.S. Eliot and Ronald
Several pages devoted to Waugh’s first two novels illustrate his
mastery of English prose and his latent modernist tendencies, as well as his
practice of making secondary characters more interesting than his heroes: “A
Waugh hero does not make his mark in the world; he waits, not with any
masochistic thrill but in a near trance of resignation, to see what damage
the world will choose to inflict upon him.”
Because so much space is devoted to the first two novels, the
next three (Black Mischief, A Handful of Dust and Scoop)
are lumped together and covered in two paragraphs, together with Waugh’s
travel books. More attention might have been paid at least to HD,
which many commentators consider his masterpiece, and Scoop, probably
his funniest book. Since Waugh is one of the funniest serious writers of
the twentieth century, it seems appropriate to explain how his humor worked
and why most of it has not dated. From Lane’s essay, you would not even
realize that much of Waugh’s work is worth reading for comedy as well as
style and narrative.
Put Out More Flags is mentioned briefly, but the opportunity to refer
to Waugh’s comedic skills is lost. There is a good short discussion of Brideshead
Revisited, with several references to assessments of the book by other
critics. Lane falls into the trap of describing the Flytes as an “old
Catholic family, rich in land, possessions, servants and internal strife.” This
is misleading, since Lord Marchmain (who brought wealth, land and
possessions--not to mention a peerage) was a reluctant convert through
marriage into his wife’s “old Catholic” family. “Internal strife” in the
Flyte family seems to come from her side; Lord Marchmain exiled himself to
Italy to escape it. Lane seems to see faith expressed in deathbed
gestures, but Lord Marchmain’s immediate forebears were not Catholics, and he
was not religious during his life. Lane’s grasp of Roman Catholicism in
Waugh’s works is tenuous: he asserts that “the majority of Waugh’s heroes
from Tony Last onward” are Roman Catholic. Tony Last, William Boot,
Basil Seal, Dennis Barlow, John Plant, Scott-King, and Miles Plastic do not
seem to be Roman Catholics, and even Charles Ryder is ambiguous, with
conversion only hinted at in BR. For most of the novel, Ryder is
overtly skeptical about Roman Catholicism; most commentators agree that he
converted, but conversion took place outside the story. That leaves only
Guy Crouchback, St Helena and Gilbert Pinfold with clear claims to be
Roman-Catholic heroes, and those three (or four, if including Charles Ryder)
hardly constitute a “majority” in ten novels and four long stories from HD
until Waugh’s death. Lane also says that Waugh’s “divorce was not
finalized until 1935.” He seems to confuse the Church’s annulment, not
approved until July 1936, with Waugh’s civil divorce. The decree nisi
was issued in January 1930 (Diaries 306).
Lane concludes with a good summary of Sword of Honour,
describing it as the “summit of Waugh’s achievement” and offering several
interpretations in support. One interpretation, however, goes horribly
wrong. In SH, Guy gives Julia Stitch the envelope containing the
ID tag from the dead British soldier in Crete, and Julia drops it into a
wastepaper basket after Guy’s departure. Lane describes her as a
“brilliant, well-connected woman [who] feels nothing for the unknown
soldier. Her mind is elsewhere, all at sea.” He has, however,
missed the tragic irony of Julia Stitch’s action. She thinks the
envelope contains Guy’s notes from Crete documenting Ivor Claire’s
desertion. Guy has already burned these papers without telling
Julia. Nor does he tell her that the envelope contains the dead
soldier’s ID tag: he has no reason to think she will do anything but give it
to her husband to be forwarded to the proper authorities. Her motivation
in discarding the envelope is not indifference (as Lane would have it) but a
desire to protect Ivor’s reputation because she still considers him her
friend. Waugh takes great pains to set up this Hardyesque
misunderstanding. In case the point is missed, Waugh adds another
twist. When Julia learns of Ritchie-Hook’s impending arrival, she fears
Guy will turn the evidence over to him. Tommy Blackhouse has told her
how Ritchie-Hook hounded soldiers he found wanting in the previous
war. She arranges Guy’s early departure for England to put him out of
reach when Ritchie-Hook arrives. Lane misses all these clues and makes a
meal of his misinterpretation of Julia’s actions, an example of what he
obviously considers an important point—namely, Waugh’s ability “to transform
a comic ruthlessness into a modulated despair.”
Each essay is followed by a “Note on Editions” to guide
potential readers to the most reliable editions of a novelist’s
work. Lane notes difficulties arising from Waugh’s practice of making
changes in later editions of his books. He mentions particular problems
arising from substantial revisions in BR as well as the war
novels. He notes changes in the ending of Unconditional Surrender:
“the hero is described … as the father of twins and in [SH] as
childless.” In answer to a 1961
letter from Anthony Powell questioning an apparently “happy ending,” Waugh
was far from my intention. The mistake was allowing Guy legitimate
offspring. They shall be deleted in any subsequent edition. I
thought it was more ironical that there should be real heirs of the Blessed
Gervase Crouchback dispossessed by Trimmer, but I plainly failed to make that
clear. So no nippers for Guy & Domenica in Penguin.
Lane could have spared himself and the reader several lines
criticizing changes that Waugh explained.
A final point will resonate more favorably with Waugh scholars. Penguin
editions of Waugh’s fiction are the “most readily and cheaply available,” but
Lane warns readers of variations. Since “the case for a scholarly
edition of Waugh’s works … is overwhelming,” Lane should be heartened by the
commissioning of such an edition by Oxford University Press. The OUP
edition will clarify matters such as variant endings of SH, which
caused unnecessary confusion in his essay. Guy handing Julia Stitch the
envelope with the dead soldier’s ID tag could be annotated to ensure that
future readers apprehend her motives, but that might spoil the subtlety of
 In an uncontested divorce such as
Waugh’s, a decree absolute should follow the decree nisi within a few
weeks. No divorced marriage partner may enter into a second civil
marriage until a decree absolute has been issued. It may be that
practices were different in the 1930s, but it seems unlikely that a decree
absolute would have been delayed until 1935, especially since Waugh’s first
wife had already married John Heygate, and their marriage was on the
rocks. See Michael Barber, Anthony Powell: A Life (London and New
York, 2004), 188.
 Waugh never indicates that the two boys
are twins, as Lane describes them.
 Letters, 579. There are in
fact three variants of this ending. See Winnifred Bogaards, “The
Conclusions of Waugh’s Trilogy: Three Variants,” EWNS 4.2 (Autumn
1970). While Waugh managed to insert the change in the second printing
of the hardback edition, the Penguin paperback failed to reflect it. He
made the change for the rescension in SH. In both of those
variants, Guy and Dominica have no children of their own. In the
Everyman version of the trilogy used by Lane, they have two of their own, as
they do in the first printing.
The Evelyn Waugh Collection of Sam Radin. New York: Glenn Horowitz
Bookseller, 2006. 63 pp. $75.00. Reviewed by John Howard
Wilson, Lock Haven University.
Evelyn Waugh Collection of Sam Radin is a handsome volume, befitting its
subject: oversized format (8½ in. x 11½ in.) in burnt-orange cloth
with EVELYN WAUGH stamped in gilt on the cover and spine, printed on
Strathmore paper. The Waugh Collection includes fourteen
illustrations, the first a seldom-seen portrait of Waugh in 1956, with
mustache, checked suit, and two-tone shoes; most of the rest are Waugh’s
inscriptions in books; one shows a rare pamphlet and two autograph
postcards. The catalog of the collection is itself a collector’s item,
and Evelyn Waugh would have been pleased to add it to his library or
even inscribe it as a present for a friend.
Radin earned a bachelor’s degree in comparative literature at Columbia
College and a law degree at Boston University. He is the president and
founder of the National Madison Group, an insurance company that specializes
in planning for writers. Twenty years of acquisition and possession were
enough, Mr. Radin writes in his preface to The Waugh Collection: “the
pursuit of items and the knowledge that each confers is of greater interest
than merely owning the collection. I decided that it would be better to
allow others to enjoy these materials as much as I and to integrate my
holdings into their different collections” (5). Collectors, scholars,
and fans can only be grateful. Mr. Radin seems to have plenty of other
interests: he is vice chair of the advisory council at the Harry Ransom
Center in Austin, trustee of the Norman Mailer Estate, and adjunct professor
at New York University, where he has taught a freshman honors seminar on the
Waugh Collection consists of seventy-one items extending from P.R.B.
(1926), Waugh’s privately printed essay on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, to
the proof copy of Sword of Honour (1965), his rescension of the war
trilogy. The World to Come (1916), Waugh’s juvenile poem about
the soul after death, is said to be “unprocurable” (9), but all of Waugh’s
books are represented, many in multiple copies and various
editions. There are, for instance, three copies of Black Mischief
(1932): two are first editions of the trade issue, one inscribed to Graham
Greene (priced at $35,000), the other to Robert Laycock ($7500); the third is
the dedication copy inscribed to Dorothy Lygon ($27,500), one of 250 deluxe
copies hand-numbered, illustrated, and signed by Waugh. As a scholar, I
tend to focus on the meaning of the text, but The Waugh Collection
reminds us that the author invested a great deal of care in the production of
rare and attractive volumes. These books were, moreover, given away;
unlike most gifts, they retained value until friends and relatives, or their
heirs, decided to sell.
Waugh Collection comes with a price list, and it is interesting to
contrast scholars’ valuations of Waugh’s works with those assigned by
collectors. How many of us would guess the most valuable item, priced at
$75,000? It is not a book at all, but a printed copy of Waugh’s “Open
Letter to His Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster” (1933),
protesting The Tablet’s review of Black Mischief. In The
Letters of Evelyn Waugh, the “Open Letter” extends over seven pages
(72-78), but it is still “truncated” (18), as The Waugh Collection
points out. Perhaps half a dozen copies were printed, and only two are
known to survive; obviously rarity is important in pricing.
place goes to the corrected proof copy of A Handful of Dust ($50,000);
third is a tie between the private edition of Brideshead Revsited
(1944) inscribed to Robert Laycock and four versions of Love Among the
Ruins (1953), all inscribed to Laycock’s wife Angela and for sale as a
set at $45,000. Waugh consistently came up with appropriate messages for
friends and relatives, but these four inscriptions, reproduced in
photographs, are especially funny. Many items are inscribed to one or
both of the Laycocks; the supply of first editions helps to explain Laycock’s
patience with Waugh, a difficult subordinate in the army.
items are considerably less expensive, between $2500 and $25,000, down to
$750 for the Danish edition of Put Out More Flags (Flere Flag,
1946), inscribed to Ivan (Waugh Collection has “Ivor”) Davson, who
helped Waugh in British Guiana in the early 1930s. (Waugh describes
Davson as a “linguist,” perhaps the reason for the Danish version.) The
same price fetches a two-page biography of Waugh prepared for the press in
1946. I understand that Glenn Horowitz still has items in the Radin
Collection for sale. Many are beyond the means of most professors, but
it is nevertheless agreeable to read about them.
Waugh Collection is based on research by the booksellers, and they
include a list of “Works Consulted.” I detected some errors in the text,
and I find some speculations dubious, but The Waugh Collection is not
supposed to be scholarship. It is intended to interest buyers in rare
books by Evelyn Waugh, and in that respect the catalog succeeds admirably. The
Waugh Collection is also of interest to scholars, since it includes
excerpts from unpublished letters and postcards, details of deluxe editions,
and other information unavailable elsewhere. It is a book to be savored
and revisited. I highly recommend it for aficionados of Evelyn Waugh and
libraries that maintain collections of Waugh’s work. Only 750 copies of The
Waugh Collection were published, but some are still available from Glenn
of the Bright Young People
episode appeared as part of a series of three devoted to the cultural
revolution that occurred in Britain
in the years between the wars. The first dealt with architecture and
design, with a focus on Art Deco and modernism, the third with the influence
of Hollywood films on British culture. The second was devoted to the
so-called Bright Young People of the 1920s. Presenters included Philip
Hoare (biographer of Stephen Tennant), Selina Hastings (biographer of Evelyn
Waugh and Nancy Mitford), Lucy Moore (author of Anything Goes: A Biography
of the Roaring Twenties) and D. J. Taylor (author of a cultural survey
entitled The Bright Young People). Indeed, Taylor’s book
(reviewed in EWNS
41.2 and 39.1) seems to
have been the basis for the program’s script, which follows his description
and interpretation of participants in the BYP and
their cultural/historical importance. No scriptwriter is mentioned
in the credits.
Glamour’s Golden Years: Episode 2, “Beautiful and Damned.” Dir.
Colin Lennox. BBC4 TV. October 2009; repeated December
2010. Reviewed by Jeffrey Manley.
program follows the careers of three participants in the BYP (Stephen Tennant,
Elizabeth Ponsonby and Brenda Dean Paul) and two observers and chroniclers of
that movement (Evelyn Waugh and Cecil Beaton). The three examples of
BYPs were all from well-established upper-class families. Philip Hoare
provides most of the narrative on Stephan Tennant, whose primary talent seems
to have been drawing attention to himself as a thing of beauty. Nancy
Mitford drew heavily on Tennant for her character Cedric Hampton in Love
in a Cold Climate and The Pursuit of Love, and Caroline
Blackwood compared him to David Bowie (unfair because Bowie can
sing). Taylor provides much of the narrative on Ponsonby (a prime
party-giver and goer) and Dean Paul, who like Tennant managed to draw
attention to herself but in a more flamboyant manner that attracted not
only newspapers but also police. Ponsonby is said to have been the model
for Agatha Runcible in Vile Bodies. All of these BYP are seen as
precursors of today’s celebrities, famous for being famous, and cleverly
manipulating the media to promote themselves.
and Beaton despised each other in childhood and would probably resent their
linkage. They were both middle-class boys who worked their ways into the
fringes of the BYP. They were not leaders or participants but
observers. Each used what he observed to produce records of the BYP
which remain among the most valuable cultural legacies of the
movement. Philip Hoare is shown browsing the photo archives left by
Beaton and housed for some unexplained reason at Sotheby’s. He selects
and explicates numerous photographs, many of which also appeared in Taylor’s
book. Waugh’s first two novels, particularly Vile Bodies, are
cited as primary sources for insights into the life of the BYP. Stephen
Fry’s 2003 film Bright Young Things, based on Vile Bodies, is
mined for clips illustrating parties, language and attitudes of the
BYP. There are also quotes from the book itself, one read by BYP Diana
BYP movement is said to have ended in 1931 as a result of the Red and White
Ball. The BYP had lost control of the press, which became highly
critical of the continuing parties, described as “imbecile
extravagances.” These took place while others went on hunger
marches. The BYP became boring when attention shifted to political and
economic issues of the 1930s, away from self-absorbed children of the
aristocracy. Tennant, Ponsonby and Dean Paul all came to sad
ends. Hoare describes visiting Tennant in 1986 while researching his
biography. Once he stopped attracting attention, Tennant lived in
virtual seclusion, dying unknown in 1988. Ponsonby tried to continue
partying to the end. Taylor is filmed going through archives of
Ponsonby's upper-class family home (still apparently occupied by her
relatives), and he recounts her death in 1941, a result of alcoholism. Dean
Paul became a drug addict for the thrill of it in the 1920s but never managed
to shake it off, and she also died in obscurity. “Beautiful and Damned”
gives Waugh credit for having predicted the fate of the BYP, though the
program could have mentioned his portrayal of the BYP as middle-aged burnouts
in later fiction.
and Beaton, both adept at self-promotion, went on to success in their chosen
fields. Rather than squander their talents in the relentless quest for
press coverage, they focused on what they did best and promoted themselves
through their works. Both left diaries dealing with the BYP, good
reading even today. Waugh is said to have abandoned the BYP after he
published VB in 1930, when he embarked upon more selective social
climbing among the upper classes who had avoided excess and
publicity. Beaton followed the same pattern of social climbing, with
perhaps even greater success. Waugh left novels that continue to be read
and dramatized, and he is often cited as one of the greatest prose stylists
of the English language in the twentieth century. Beaton became one of
the most skillful and innovative photographers and designers of the century,
and his photos still have immediacy and originality that has not dated.
and Damned” is worth watching, though anyone familiar with the period is
unlikely to learn much. Beaton’s photographs and quotations from
literature are carefully woven into the narrative. The talking heads are
all well versed in the matters under consideration, and they are articulate
enough to hold the viewer’s attention over sixty minutes.
ventures into several genres, notably chick-lit fiction, Daisy Waugh says, “I
was bored of it…. It was time to move forward. Actually, I think people have
got bored with reading it. There comes a point where your thinking is a bit
more developed” (http://www.darlingtonandstocktontimes.co.uk/leisure/8877632.A_Daisy_by_any_other_name_would_still_write/).
Last Dance with Valentino, by Daisy Waugh. London: HarperCollins, 2011. £12.99.
Reviewed by Robert Murray Davis, University of Oklahoma.
development, apparently, was to abandon the humor praised in blurbs for
earlier novels. Last Dance with Valentino tells the story of the
heated and mostly frustrated romance of Lola Nightingale, née Jennifer Doyle,
with obscure dancer Rudolfo Gugliemi. They are separated for ten years while
he becomes Rudolph Valentino and she endures various misfortunes before being
reunited with him ten days before his death.
story, entirely in the first person, is framed within those ten days.
Jennifer/Lola not only reacts to events of 1926 but also narrates the
back-story in a different typeface. That story reads rather as if Jane Eyre
had been supplanted as narrator by Catherine in the film Jules and Jim,
accurately described by one viewer as “a train wreck.” Several times the
narrator is called, not without some justice, a “crazy bitch.”
all of this, in 1926 and from 1916 on, Jennifer/Lola encounters various
supporters—colleagues from her time in service who reappear opportunely,
striking twins who move up the Hollywood ladder from extras to starlets, at
least, and a fairy godmother in Frances Marion, a real Hollywood figure, who
encourages her scriptwriting and brings her back into contact with Rudy
through a script based on his early days in the USA. There are also
formidable obstacles: an awful mistress of the house in which the narrator
serves as governess, mis-sent or concealed letters, an abusive drug-dealing
boyfriend in Hollywood by whom she is impregnated (not clear whether there is
a miscarriage or an abortion), a decent man who leaves her when she
recognizes Rudy in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and gives loud
and immediate vent to her passion for him.
last phrase is a cliché, but it seems appropriate for much of the narrator’s
style. She trembles, bursts into speech wildly inappropriate for ordinary
social situations, and swoons—well, collapses. Some of the language comes not
from chick-lit but from an older type of romance novel, in which emotions run
Dance is also, obviously, an historical novel, with obligatory cameos
from figures like Theda Bara, Anita Loos, Mary Pickford, and Valentino’s
second wife, Natacha Rambova (née Winifred Shaughnessy from Salt Lake City),
who is compared to the cold-hearted murderess for whom Jennifer worked and is
equally disliked by Lola and, in the “Author’s Notes,” by Daisy Waugh. (In
fact, Rambova had an interesting career as costume and set designer—see her
work in the astonishing, over-the-top Salome if possible—and later as
an amateur Egyptologist.)
course, Valentino is the central figure, but he is seen through a mist of the
narrator’s passion and thwarted desire. His power of attraction is for the
most part presented insistently rather than dramatically. Jennifer/Lola takes
comfort even after his death, calling herself “the luckiest woman alive.”
the Postscript, a memo from one studio executive to another accompanying her
papers preserved by her granddaughter (an Oscar-winning performer who
resembles Valentino), Lola is praised as a major scriptwriter. In fact,
Lola’s passion for writing holds her and ultimately the novel together. A few
days before Valentino’s death, she experiences a flash about the weakness of
a script: “why should [the hero] rescue the girl from her hopeless,
inert little life when the silly girl can’t even be bothered to rescue
herself?” The solution is that “she must first become her own saviour and
transform herself.” But for Lola that transformation occurs off-screen, since
the reader learns of it only in the Postscript.
the whole, Last Dance with Valentino can probably best be seen as a
transitional work. Daisy Waugh has expanded her range in subject matter and
perhaps in style. It will be interesting to see what she does to explore and
develop this new territory.
Intermodernism: Literary Culture in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain, ed.
Kristin Bluemel. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009
(paperback, 2011). 254 pp. $95.00 hardcover, $35.00
paperback. Reviewed by Laura Mooneyham White, University
idea of “intermodernism” as a name for the period including the years between
the two world wars, the second world war itself, and the years of its
immediate aftermath, that is, roughly 1920-1950, has burbled about since at
least 2004, when Kristin Bluemel, editor of the collection of essays under
consideration, published George Orwell and the Radical Eccentrics:
Intermodernism in Literary London (Palgrave). Seconded by Nick Hubble in
two essays (one on Ford Madox Ford in 2008, the other on Orwell and
William Empson in 2009) which also hailed “intermodernism” as a literary
period, Bluemel now attempts to solidify these gains for her term in an
edited volume with an introduction that shares its rhetoric and scope of
mission with those of many (plain old) modernist manifestos. As its first
sentence pronounces, “[t]his collection of critical essays on intermodernism
challenges readers to accept a new term, new critical category and new
literary history for twentieth-century British literary culture”
(1). Can we rise to the challenge? Ought we to do so?
arises out of the recent expansion of modernist studies, as Bluemel notes
early on: “the apparent colonisation of virtually all areas of study of
twentieth-century literary cultural activity by the ‘New Modernism Studies’
has ensured that whatever is not modernism will function as modernism’s
other” (2). With the modesty the introduction evinces throughout, Bluemel
continues, “The modernism/intermodernism binary, which I did not invent but
rather discovered, ready and waiting for me, functions as a call to
deconstruction” (2). We are taken into deep waters quickly with her
explanation of her coinage: “‘Inter-’ means ‘between’ so a modernism that is
between should be regarded as something more than a simple binary term” (2).
The logical problem is that “inter-” means between one thing and another, and
Bluemel does not want particularly to argue that the works of intermodernist
authors led directly to the full expressivist displays we find in
post-modernist texts. Rather, the idea of intermodernism is itself a
“postmodern invention,” she claims, made possible only through “a
contemporary attention to popular culture, legitimized through
institutionalization of cultural studies” (9). The tools of postmodern
inquiry thus bring to light the particular markers of intermodernism as
Bluemel constructs it: first, it is chiefly populated by working-class and
middle-class authors and subjects; second, its figures often hold radical or
at least eccentric political views; and third, its works were published
through mass or middlebrow venues more often than in elite bastions. Bluemel
notes that the high/low distinction of literary authors, markets, and readers
is not the only binary intermodernism helps to undo: “it has the potential to
be the concept or space that inserts itself between modernism and its many
structuring oppositions, reshaping the ways we think about relations between
elite and common, experimental and popular, urban and rural, masculine and
feminine, abstract and realistic, colonial and colonized” (3). So many
binaries, so little time. Bluemel concludes this view of the many blessings
intermodernism may confer with a simple hope: “Within an institutional
context, this is one of the good things that it could make happen in the
world” (3). To make sense, the sentence requires that one pay little
attention to its introductory phrase.
modernism certainly poses interpretive problems for literary history. But
need the solution be, as here, proposed as a full ideology? While
acknowledging and even celebrating the fact that intermodernism as a term
meant nothing to the writers who lived in the thirties and forties, Bluemel
argues that its value comes from its suggestions for a “reorganization of
values”: “this means that intermodernism, like any other movement category
such as romanticism or modernism or Futurism, is blatantly, self-consciously,
ideological” (5). And its ideological commitments, we infer, are to mass
observation, the documentary impulse, the lived experience of ordinary work,
a refusal to withdraw, especially to withdraw above, and a general
sympathy with the ideas of the left and the working classes.
the whole impulse behind this enterprise of naming and exploring the works of
this period is putatively to enlarge boundaries, to undo limiting ideas of
what can or cannot be taken seriously within literary culture, the presence
of Evelyn Waugh poses just one troubling counter-example. The volume usefully
includes an appendix of brief autobiographies entitled “Who Are the
Intermodernists?” Bluemel explains that the list does not include the more
famous members of the Auden Generation (Auden himself is absent, for
instance), but does run to “figures of Auden’s generation who are not
typically recognized as such and have not attracted significant treatment
from scholars, or those whose chosen literary styles, institutional and
personal commitments and networks, correspond more closely to the
intermodernism described in this book” (208). Herein lies the chief
problem with “intermodernism”—is it a period or an ideology, and if the
latter, to what degree do the usual constrictions of ideological categories
hamper our understanding? The appendix lists figures well out of sympathy
with left-leaning concerns about war, or documentary montages of
working-class experience. Angela Thirkell is there (she is admittedly middlebrow,
but all her works more than sympathize with county interests). Waugh is there
as well, and perhaps his work as a journalist and travel writer and his
experiments with documentary reportage in his fiction ally him with the
intermodernism “described in this book.” The appendix is properly generous
and capacious—for instance, it includes Noël Coward.
is aware of the problems her new category creates, for her introduction
concludes with a discussion of two “quintessential intermodernists,” Orwell
and Richard Hillary (RAF fighter pilot and author of The Last Enemy
). There is much in both Orwell and Hillary to fit with the general
outlines of intermodernism as Bluemel presents them, but here she focuses on
their shared interest in the idea of “the last man”; in fact, she argues that
“the status Orwell and Hillary achieved even before their deaths suggests the
mythical power of the image of the last man, an image that guided their
interpretations of their own lives and won them astonishingly huge
readerships” (10). But the figure of the last man is indeed mythic and
iconic, not demotic, and the theme of the end of civilization was not the
theme of working-class or middle-class leftists, who were far more interested
in re-making civilization than calling it off altogether. A (very) partial
proof of the conservative underpinnings of the idea of the last man lies in
its evident appeal to Waugh, for Sebastian Ryder and Guy Crouchback are
certainly figurations of this type.
whole of the collection is less confusing than Bluemel’s introduction. We are
directed to read the essays along the axes of work, community, war, and
documents (there are three or so essays for each category), and to record the
synthetic possibilities among them. It is churlish to expect too much
continuity from an edited volume, but with the exception of an otherwise fine
essay on the medieval imagination of T. H. White and Sylvia Townsend Warner
(by Janet Montefiore), the selections do serve Bluemel’s intermodernist imperative.
Elizabeth Maslen explores Storm Jameson’s warnings about the possibility
European fascism could invade the English provinces, and Phyllis Lassner is
on similar ground in finding clear political warnings in the detective spy
fiction of Margery Allingham and Helen MacInnes. John Fordham and Faye
Hammill explore the intricate relations between setting and class in the
works of Harold Heslop and Stella Gibbons, respectively. (Hammill falls prey,
however, to the problem of intermodernism’s pre-determined character by
consistently claiming that Gibbons balanced progressive and conservative
views, whereas any serious reader of Gibbons knows she was always strongly on
the side of tradition--cultural, political, and religious). Throughout
the volume, Waugh is mentioned tangentially a few times, but one should
expect this, given his mismatch with intermodernism’s character. Nonetheless,
Lisa Colletta’s essay on J. B. Priestley’s travel writing may well be of
interest to those who would like to draw contrasts with Waugh’s, especially
as Priestley’s concerns were often more in line with those of Charles Madge
and the Mass Observation Movement.
two most successful essays deal with subjects who fit Bluemel’s strictures in
particularly suggestive ways. Debra Rae Cohen’s treatment of Rebecca West
shows that Cohen is keenly aware of the problems with literary historiography
as ideology, but she nonetheless nimbly assesses West as an evocative
intermodernist subject. West is perhaps the model intermodernist—with generally
leftist sympathies, she wrote for middlebrow audiences, manipulating genre
and form for political and documentary purposes. As Cohen notes about West’s
travel writing, “Like Auden and MacNeice’s pastiche in Letters from
Iceland, but with far less playful aim, West’s display of generic mash-up
in Black Lamb [and Grey Falcon] is strategic—clearly stylized,
purposive, and overt” (152). Interpreters of intermodernism would be well
advised to explore complexity as ably as Cohen does; speaking of West’s propagandistic
treatment of Nuremberg, she notes: “it’s exactly this quality of tension with
West’s own writing, the way the fervency of her judgements, the slash of her
condemnations, often emerge in strained relation to their complexly crafted
palimpsestic surroundings, that makes her writing so difficult to describe
and leads so often to its miscategorisation; if one responds only to the
surface barrage one is likely to miss the sappers, tunneling beneath” (157).
other particularly interesting essay comes from Nick Hubble, the co-founder,
if there is one, of intermodernism. (He is helping to institutionalize the
term as the leading light of the May 2011 “Inaugural London Intermodernism
Seminar” at Brunel University [West London] at which one may hear papers on
figures such as Empson, Christopher Isherwood, Elizabeth Bowen, and [more
oddly] Malcolm Lowry and Zora Neale Hurston). Relying in large part upon the
social theorist Slavoj Žižek who holds that dominant cultural ideologies
wholly structure the individual’s sense of reality, Hubble explores the
relationship between Madge’s Mass Observation Project and Empson’s
popular poetry, especially Empson’s famous idea that proletarian literature
operates by the “trick of thought” common to the pastoral tradition. Thus the
reader of proletarian literature is guided to construct a double view of
himself as both superior and inferior to others, an aesthetic technique in
the complex service of political ends that is common to the intermodernism
Hubble and Bluemel put forward more generally. The end of the essay seems to
voice the political and cultural hopes of the intermodernist project,
especially as a self-described ideological project of the twenty-first
century: “It is this fundamental core of non-identity … which underwrites the
intermodern capacity to satisfy apparently opposed impulses simultaneously
and thereby hold open the promise of full human agency—by showing, variously,
how being a Mass-Observer can lead to the pleasure of being observed by the
mass; how everyday routine can become the possibility of performative
transformation; and how the limits of social class can leave infinite space
in which to live freely” (186). Among Waugh’s works, Decline and Fall
perhaps most fully explodes the utopian hopes expressed in this passage, but
readers of Waugh may have their own nominees.
A Wedding Present
Andrew Brown, a collector in the United Kingdom, has acquired copy no. 2 of
the limited edition of Love Among the Ruins (1953). Evelyn Waugh
inscribed it to "Tina" in January 1963. "Tina" was Lady
Christina McDonnell, daughter of Randal ("Ran"), 8th Earl of
Antrim. She married Joseph Hoare of the banking family on 23 January 1963.
The book is larger than the standard first edition and housed in a dark-green
Morocco-leather slipcase, finished with original Queen Elizabeth II
2-1/2-pence postage stamps, apparently in honor of her coronation in 1953.
The book has a similar finish. It is one of fifty copies of the deluxe
edition printed on hand-made paper and distributed to friends of Evelyn
A list of limited editions of fiction by Evelyn Waugh is available at Bookseller
New Penguin Edition of Evelyn Waugh
Penguin Books is bringing out a new edition of Evelyn Waugh's works. Eight
titles will be published on 26 May 2011, with eight more published on 4 August
2011. The titles appear below.
Loveday's Little Outing & Other Early Stories
Out More Flags
Handful of Dust
the Going Was Good
Two Photographs and a Letter
Two photographs of Evelyn Waugh and one of his unpublished letters were offered
for sale as part of the Roy Davids Collection at Bonhams in London on 29
March 2011. Details are available at
http://www.bonhams.com/eur/sale/19386/. Search for lots 245-247. The
first photo, by Mark Gerson, and the letter sold for £840 each.
According to an article in
The Telegraph on 16 February 2011, "a rare example of
19th-century, painted Gothic revival furniture that was once owned by John
Betjeman and Evelyn Waugh has been sold by the Waugh family for £850,000. The
Zodiac Settle, or bench, was designed by the cultish, opium-smoking architect
William Burges in 1865." Betjeman acquired the settle in 1961 and gave
it to Waugh. A high-resolution photograph of the settle is available at http://tinyurl.com/4rjmdx3.
Sale of Evill/Frost Collection
On 15 June 2011, Sotheby's London will launch the sale of the "greatest
collection of 20th-Century British Art ever to come to the market." The
Evill/Frost Collection was assembled by Evelyn Waugh's solicitor, Wilfred
Evill, between 1925 and 1960 and then maintained by Honor Frost. The
collection includes a number of paintings by Stanely Spencer, R.A.
(1891-1959), whom Waugh admired (see Diaries 743 and Letters
541). For details of the collection, please visit http://www.artdaily.org/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=45526
Audio Recordings of Waugh Novels
Unabridged readings of ten of Evelyn Waugh's novels are available on CDs and
as downloads. Recordings range from four hours, forty-six minutes (Decline
and Fall) to eleven hours, thirty-two minutes (Brideshead Revisited),
and the price of each recording is about £20. For details, please visit AudioGo.
Googling "Evelyn Waugh"
The Google Books NGram Viewer indicates how often a given phrase occurs
in a corpus of books over a number of years. "Evelyn Waugh"
seems to have peaked in English in the early 1980s. In the USA, the peak came
in the late 1970s; since then, the number of references has gradually dropped
back to the level of the mid 1960s. In the UK, the peak came in the late
1980s, followed by a steeper drop back to the level of the mid 1960s. The
NGram Viewer is available at http://ngrams.googlelabs.com
Evelyn Waugh's Birthday
the "internet answer engine," identifies eleven writers who share
the same birthday as Evelyn Waugh (Oct. 28th). They include Bill Gates and
Auguste Escoffier. For the rest, please visit
The Fraught Matter of Pronunciation
A correspondent in the Netherlands discovered the following links, which
provide guidance in pronouncing Evelyn Waugh's name:
The following is a podcast, with the matter of pronunciation raised at the
The Waugh Dynasty
As part of a series on "Great dynasties of the world," The
Guardian published an article on the Waughs on 5 February 2011. The
article, by Ian Sansom, focuses mainly on Evelyn Waugh.
Better and Better
In "The best boring books," an entry in "Books Blog" for
the Guardian on 4 January 2011, Robert McCrum wrote that "The
Great War is simply just richer from a literary point of view. Owen, Sassoon,
Rosenberg, Graves: the rollcall from France trumps anything the 1940s can
produce, with the possible exception of Evelyn Waugh. The arrival of 2011
permits me to say that his Sword of Honour trilogy grows in stature with
every passing decade." (Waugh did not make the list of the best boring
Bang Right (Again)
In The Atlantic and its Enemies: A Personal History of the Cold War
(London: Allen Lane, 2010), Norman Stone argues that Evelyn Waugh's Sword
of Honour is the "best guide to the grimness and red tape of postwar
Britain." The quotation is from a review by David Priestland in History
Today 60.6 (June 2010): 65.
The Best Descriptions of Seasickness
In "Ten of the best: cases of seasickness," published in the Guardian
on 12 February 2011, John Mullan included the scene on the liner in
Brideshead Revisited by Evelyn Waugh.
The Best Quest Narratives
In "Robert Irwin's top 10 quest narratives," published in the Guardian
on 21 April 2011, the author listed Brideshead Revisited as one of the
best "literary journeys toward enlightenment."
In "Brideshead Redecorated,"a review of Naomi Alderman's second
novel, Philip Womack claims that The Lessons has
"strong echoes of Evelyn Waugh's classic." See the Financial
Times, 24 April 2010: 18.
No Idle Threat
In an interview, Major John Majendie, who served in the Commandos during the
Second World War, claims that Evelyn Waugh threatened to portray his fellow
soldiers in his next book. Major Majendie won the Times/Sternberg
Active Life Award. The interview is available on YouTube.
The Best Journalists in Literature
In "Ten of the best: journalists in literature," published in the Guardian
on 9 April 2011, John Mullan included William Boot from Scoop.
among the Best Books on Journalism
In an interview in The
Browser: Writing Worth Reading, Robert Cottrell, former foreign
correspondent, named Evelyn Waugh's Scoop as one of the best books on
Scoop and Somalia
Scoop has been invoked to explain the situation in Somalia. In
"What I Learned from the Somali Pirates," published in the Spectator
in December 2008, Aidan Hartley claimed that the "ceaseless piracy off
Somalia's shores . . . is giving rise to a modern, real-life version of
the novel Scoop. Somalia today is a bit like Laku," the
nonexistent place reported to be significant. "Editors are begging for
stories about the pirates' latest catch," but "if they were
honest," the "press corps would simply confess 'I don't
know'. There are too many laptop bombardiers writing acres of colour and
analysis from the safety of London and Nairobi." The article has been
republished as "The International Community Cannot Ignore Piracy in
Somalia" in At Issue: Piracy on the High Seas, ed. Noah Berlatsky
(Detroit: Greenhaven, 2010), a book aimed at young adults.
Waugh and the African Dictator
In "Mad dog of the Middle East," a story in The
Australian for 23 February 2011, Greg Sheridan noted that Muammar
Gaddafi is "a buffoon, a preening, ludicrous, Evelyn Waugh caricature of
an African dictator." Incidentally, Donald Macintyre of The
Independent compared living in Tripoli to a Graham Greene novel.
The First Member of an African Jazz Club?
According to "Jazz Legend Randy Weston at Artists Collective
Saturday," an article by Owen McNally published in the Hartford
Courant on 5 May 2011, Weston was the "longtime proprietor of the
internationally famous jazz club African Rhythms in Tangier, Morocco's
northernmost port," and the "very first patrons to sign up in the
1960s were British novelist Evelyn Waugh ('Brideshead Revisited') and his
older brother, novelist Alec Waugh ('Island in the Sun')." The article
is available here.
Anyone who has more information about this surprising connection is
encouraged to contact the editor, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Critical Heritage
Evelyn Waugh: The Critical Heritage, edited by Martin Stannard, can be
downloaded for free from Wiredshelf.com.
New Books on Evelyn Waugh
Duncan McLaren's Evelyn!: Rhapsody for an Obsessive Love will be
published by Beautiful Books in London in September 2011.
A Handful of Mischief: New Essays on Evelyn Waugh, coedited by Donat
Gallagher, Ann Pasternak Slater, and John Howard Wilson, has been published
by Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. These essays were originally
presented at the Evelyn Waugh Centenary Conference in Oxford in 2003.
Six Scholarly Essays
Six substantial scholarly essays on Evelyn Waugh have been published in the
Curtin, Mary Elizabeth. "'Ghastly Good Taste': The Interior Decorator
and the Ethics of Design in Evelyn Waugh and Elizabeth Bowen." Home
Cultures 7.1 (2010): 5-23.
DeCoste, Damon Marcel. "Temptations of the Craftsman in Middle Age:
Diabolical Art and Christian Vocation in The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold."
Renascence 63.3 (Spring 2011): 189-209.
Gallagher, Donat. "Evelyn Waugh's Edmund Campion and 'Lady
Southwell's Letter.'" Connotations 20.1 (2010/2011): 80-107.
MacLeod, Lewis. "'They Just Won't Do, You Know': Postcolonial Discourse
and Evelyn Waugh's Sword of Honour." LIT: Literature
Interpretation Theory 21.2 (2010): 61-80.
In a note, Professor MacLeod observes that
Evelyn Waugh Newsletter and Studies clearly testifies to the author's
status and it continues to publish interesting articles on Waugh's work, yet
the problem (as I see it) is that the gulf between Waugh's conservative
reputation and contemporary critical practice is so wide that the newsletter
often needs to act as a kind of 'private space' for arguments (and modes of
argumentation) that are not obviously consistent with dominant discursive
norms. Under such conditions 'Waugh criticism' and 'Waugh enthusiasm' are
easily conflated, and the former may be dismissed as the latter on the
grounds that Waugh's politics (as opposed to his novels) ought to have no
place in a pluralist, contemporary academy.
Milthorpe, Naomi. "'Death is at the Elbow': The Loved One and Love
Among the Ruins." Renascence 62.3 (Spring 2010): 201-17.
Wilson, John Howard. "Brideshead Revisited in Nineteen
Eighty-Four: Evelyn Waugh's Influence on George Orwell." Papers
in Language & Literature 47.1 (Winter 2011): 3-25.
The End of Llanabba?
According to "Builder bids to continue Plas Dulas demolition," an
article by Darren Devine posted on Wales
Online on 3 February 2011, an outbuilding at the school where Evelyn
Waugh taught in the 1920s has been "part-bulldozed," and the
builder wants demolish the rest of the "dilapidated folly" to make
room for fifteen "detached properties." Conservationists described
the demolition as a "desecration" of Welsh heritage. Plas Dulas,
known as Arnold House in Waugh's time and Llanabba in Decline and Fall,
was once owned by Oxford scientist Richard Dawkins, who cites Waugh
(inappropriately) in The God Delusion (2006). See "Waugh and the
40.2 (Autumn 2009).
and A Handful of Dust were published in
Hungarian translation in 1942 and 1935, respectively (in reverse of
their original publication). The next Waugh novel translated was Brideshead
Revisited in 1948, three years after Szerb's
death. Szerb may have read some of Waugh's novels (in fact, he read
everything), and he didn't need translations. He doesn't seem to have written
anything about Waugh.
A letter in the Times Literary Supplement for 5 January 2011 compares
Evelyn Waugh with the Hungarian writer Antal Szerb (1901-1945). Associate
Editor Robert Murray Davis elicited the following comments from a Hungarian
expert in British literature:
Szerb's English was excellent. The Pendragon Legend (1934) uses, with much fun and verve, some of
the conventions of the 1920s British satirical or comic novel as
exemplified in the early Huxley or, if you like, Waugh, though grounds for further
comparison end here. His other novel that has been making the rounds in a
recent English translation, Journey by Moonlight (1937), is
even more un-Waugh-like.
Evelyn Waugh in the Gay News
In a letter from Tangier to John Montgomery dated 15 January 1974, Alec Waugh
wrote: "I missed your piece about Evelyn in the Gay News. That is one of
the disadvantages of living abroad. I don't see many magazines and there's no
TV. I never saw the A. G. Macdonald cricket match. I wonder when Christopher
Sykes will get down to the biography of E.W. He is very dilatory. I won't say
that he is in danger of missing the bus, but he has been preceded." If
anyone can find a copy of the article in the Gay News, please contact
the editor, email@example.com.
Evelyn Waugh's "Beau Brummells"
On 5 March 2011, a website called styleforum
posted a copy of Evelyn Waugh's article "Beau Brummells on £60 a
Year," originally published in the Daily Express on 13 February
Images of Evelyn Waugh
Hundreds of photographs of Evelyn Waugh and his works are available at http://connect.in.com/evelyn-waugh/images.html
Sketch of Evelyn Waugh
A sketch of Evelyn Waugh can be viewed at http://www.colinspencer.org/galleries/drawings/slides/Evelyn%20Waugh%204%20%28pen%20&%20ink,%201959%29.html
Evelyn Waugh Greeting Cards
A company called Encore Editions offers a photograph of Evelyn Waugh by Carl
Van Vechten in various formats, including greeting cards and postcards. For
more information, please visit http://www.encore-editions.com/portrait-of-evelyn-waugh
In "They're Reading," an article in The Times on 27 March
2010, English comedienne, actress, and writer Laura Solon said that her
favorite author is Evelyn Waugh.
John Fothergill and the Spread Eagle Hotel
On his blog, An Open Book, on 14 December 2010, Brooks Peters
published "Architect of the Moon," an article about John
Fothergill, proprietor of the Spread Eagle Hotel at Thame, one of Evelyn
Waugh's haunts in the 1920s. The Spread Eagle inspired the hotel where
Anthony Blanche takes Charles Ryder to dinner in Brideshead Revisited.
The article is available at http://www.brookspeters.com/2010/12/architect-of-the-moon/
Evelyn Waugh Conference
The third Evelyn Waugh Conference will be held at Downside School and Abbey
in Somerset, England, 16-19 August 2011. To register, contact John Wilson, firstname.lastname@example.org. To propose a
paper, contact J. V. Long, email@example.com.
Anthony Powell Conference
The Sixth Biennial Anthony Powell Conference will be held at the Naval &
Military Club, 4 St James's Square, London, 2-4 September 2011. The theme is
"Anthony Powell's Literary London." To inquire or register, please
contact the Conference Office, Anthony Powell Society, 76 Ennismore Avenue,
Greenford, Middlesex, UB6 0JW, England. Phone: +44 (0)20 8864 4095.
Fax: +44 (0)20 8020 1483. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Evelyn Waugh Society
The Evelyn Waugh Society has 105 members. To join, please visit http://evelynwaughsociety.org/. The
Evelyn Waugh Discussion List has 85 members. To join, please visit http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Evelyn_Waugh.
Evelyn Waugh Undergraduate Essay Contest
Entries in the Seventh Annual Evelyn Waugh Undergraduate Essay Contest should
be submitted to Dr. John H. Wilson, Department of English, Lock Haven
University, Lock Haven PA 17745, USA, or email@example.com,
by 31 December 2011.
Evelyn Waugh Lecture at Lancing
The Evelyn Waugh Lecture and Annual Foundation Dinner took place at
Lancing College on 21 March 2011. The lecturer was playwright, screenwriter,
and film director Christopher Hampton. Tom Waugh unveiled a bust of his
grandfather, to be placed in the Sanderson Room, the old library, where Waugh
spent much of his time at Lancing.
Inspired by Waugh?
Dictionary defines "Cruttwell" as "someone who is very
faggish and looks like Elmo. They often pretend to be emo and can't play
guitar for shit." Example: "Look at that guy, he's so like
Cruttwell." The dictionary sells mugs, t-shirts, and magnets displaying
"Cruttwell" and its definition.
Two-minute previews of each episode of the Brideshead Revisited
television series are available at Amazon.com.
Brideshead Revisited at Cambridge
In "Brideshead Regurgitated," an article published in the Cambridge
Student on 23 March 2011, Daniel Janes considers whether the
"cult of Brideshead among Cantabridgians" is "harmless
fun" or perhaps the sign of a "regressive social agenda." The
article focuses on the television series rather than the novel.
Lost in the Amazon
On 20 April 2011, PBS Television broadcast "Lost in the
Amazon," an episode in the series Secrets of the Dead. The
episode focused on Col. Percy Fawcett, who disappeared in the Amazon in
1925 and probably contributed to Evelyn Waugh's A Handful of Dust.
More information is available at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/episodes/lost-in-the-amazon/829/
End of Evelyn Waugh
Newsletter and Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1
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