v What is geology? What does geology study? What is the difference between geology and geography?
v What is the difference between minerals and rocks?
v Know the difference between crystals, minerals, rocks, Earth’s crust
v What are the most commonly used physical properties of minerals? Know the common properties (e.g. luster, color, streak, hardness, cleavage, fracture, reaction to HCl (hydrochloric acid), specific gravity, etc.) of the most abundant minerals (e.g. feldspar, quartz, mica, calcite, etc.) found in Earth’s crust.
v What are the most abundant elements found in the Earth crust?
v What is rock-forming mineral? What is the most abundant rock-forming mineral group called? What are some examples of minerals that belong to that group?
v What is the difference between ferromagnesian and non-ferromagnesian silicate minerals? Know some examples of each of these groups. What are other non-silicate groups of minerals? Know example and uses of minerals that belong to those non-silicate groups of minerals.
v What is rock cycle? What geologic processes (e.g. weathering, heat, crystallization of magma) are involved in the rock cycle?
v What are three rock types? How do three rock types vary from each other?
v Know (with examples) the difference between intrusive vs. extrusive, felsic vs. mafic, continental vs. oceanic, phaneritic vs. aphanitic igneous rocks.
v Know the common name and occurrence of various igneous rocks in relation to geologic settings (or plate tectonic settings). In other words, where will you find granite, pumice, basalt, gabbro, etc.?
v Why are sedimentary rocks important? Know the geologic processes (e.g. weathering, erosion, deposition, lithification, etc.) that are responsible for their generation. What is Uniformitarianism?
v Know examples of clastic, chemical, and bioclstic sedimentary rocks and their depositional environment.
v What processes are responsible for generation of metamorphic rocks? Where in the Earth do various types of metamorphism occur?
v What causes metamorphism in pre-existing rocks? What are different types of metamorphism? What types of metamorphic texture (foliation vs. massive) are associated with different types of metamorphism? Know examples of metamorphic rocks that represent low to high grade metamorphism. Know the parent rocks (protolith) of most common metamorphic rocks.
Topographic Maps (Exercise 3 in Lab Manual)
v What is a topographic map? How does a topographic map vary from a road map?
v What different scales are used on a topographic map? Know how do these scales relate to one another (i.e. be able to convert on scale into another).
v What is the difference between a large-scale (1:24,000) and a small-scale map (1:100,000)?
v What are bench marks and spot elevations?
v Know the rules of contours (e.g. “V” of contours point upstream of a stream; close contours mean steeper gradient, contours never cross each other; contour interval is constant on a map; etc.)
v What is the difference between relief and gradient in an area?
v Know the difference between latitudes and longitudes. What are prime meridian and parallels? What are approximate latitude and longitude of Lock Haven area?
v What is hydrologic cycle? What are the components of hydrologic cycle?
are the major uses of water in the
v What is watershed? Why is it important to delineate watershed boundaries in a region? What does the expression “We all live downstream” means?
v Know the types of load carried by a river. Know the types of erosion and deposition of rivers.
v What is the difference between braided and meandering rivers? What is the base level of a river? What changes a river go through as it flows downstream?
v Know various features associated with a meandering river.
v What is flood? What does the expression “100-year flood” mean? Know the factors affecting flooding propensity in a region (including the influence of urbanization on flooding).
v What is the difference between aquifer and aquiclude? Know examples of rocks that would make good aquifers.
v Know various groundwater-related features: springs, geysers, sinkholes, karst topography, disappearing streams, cone of depression, drawdown, and caves.
v What are some sources of groundwater pollution? What are the most common pollutants? Know the difference between point (source of pollution is known) vs. non-point (source of pollution is unknown) sources of pollution with some examples.
v What are the health risks of water pollution?
v What can be or should be done to solve water-related problems?