1) Knowledge Base
2) How Children Learn
4) Instructional Strategies
5) Learning Environment
9) Reflective Practitioner
The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to
encourage students' development of critical thinking, problem solving, and
- The teacher understands the cognitive
processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g. critical and
creative thinking, problem structuring and problem solving, invention,
memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated.
- The teacher understands principles and
techniques, along with advantages and limitations, associated with
various instructional strategies (e.g. cooperative learning, direct
instruction, discovery learning, whole group discussion, independent
study, interdisciplinary instruction).
- The teacher knows how to enhance
learning through the use of a wide variety of materials as well as
human and technological resources (e.g. computers, audio-visual
technologies, videotapes and discs, local experts, primary documents
and artifacts, texts, reference books, literature, and other print
- The teacher values the development of
students' critical thinking, independent problem solving, and
- The teacher values flexibility and
reciprocity in the teaching process as necessary for adapting
instruction to student responses, ideas, and needs.
- The teacher carefully evaluates how to
achieve learning goals, choosing alternative teaching strategies and
materials to achieve different instructional purposes and to meet
student needs (e.g. developmental stages, prior knowledge, learning
styles, and interests).
- The teacher uses multiple teaching and
learning strategies to engage students in active learning
opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking,
problem solving, and performance capabilities and that help student
assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources.
- The teacher constantly monitors and
adjusts strategies in response to learner feedback.
- The teacher varies his or her role in
the instructional process (e.g. instructor, facilitator, coach,
audience) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and
the needs of students.
- The teacher develops a variety of
clear, accurate presentations and representations of concepts, using
alternative explanations to assist students' understanding and
presenting diverse perspectives to encourage critical thinking.