## ERROR PROPAGATION RULES |

SUM RULE: When R = A + B then ΔR = ΔA + ΔB |

*Memory clues:*

When quantities are added (or subtracted) theirabsoluteerrors add (or subtract). But when quantities are multiplied (or divided), theirrelativefractional errors add (or subtract).

These rules will be freely used, when appropriate.

We can also collect and tabulate the results for commonly used elementary functions. **Note:** Where Δt appears, it **must** be expressed in *radians*.

EQUATION ERROR EQUATION |

Any measures of error may be converted to relative (fractional) form by using the definition of relative error. The fractional error in x is: f_{x} = (ΔR)x)/x where (ΔR)x is the absolute ereror in x. Therefore xf_{x} = (ΔR)x.

The rules for indeterminate errors are simpler.

SUM OR DIFFERENCE: When R = A + B then ΔR = ΔA + ΔB |

The indeterminate error rules for elementary functions are the same as those for determinate errors *except* that the error terms on the right are all positive.

Students who are taking calculus will notice that these rules are entirely unnecessary. The determinate error equations may be found by differentiating R, then replading dR, dx, dy, etc. with ΔR, Δx, Δy, etc. This is equivalent to expanding ΔR as a Taylor series, then neglecting all terms of higher order than 1. This is a valid approximation when (ΔR)/R, (Δx)/x, etc. are all small fractions.The indeterminate error equations may be

ΔR = ( )Δx + ( )Δy + ( )Δz .The coefficients in parantheses ( ), and/or the errors themselves, may be negative, so some of the

Click here for a printable summary sheet Strategies of Error Analysis.