Uses and Misuses of Logic
As far as the propositions of mathematics refer to reality they are not certain, and so far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) U. S. physicist, born in Germany.
IntroductionThis chapter contains observations on the uses and misuses of logic, particularly in the sciences. Along the way we'll wander into the murky realms of absolute and proximate truths, deduction and induction and address the question of how we can have confidence in knowledge that is less than perfect.
We will use certain terms as scientists use them. For those not familiar with the language of science, we include here some fundamentals, so we'll all be starting with the same language.
Induction and deductionScience proceeds from facts to laws to theories by a difficult-to-define process called induction. Induction includes pattern-recognition, brainstorming, tinkering, creative guessing and that elusive "insight". It is not a process of deductive logic.
Theories and laws are required to be of such form that one can deductively proceed from theories to laws to data. The results of deduction must meet a stringent standard: they must agree with experiment and with observations of nature.
Mathematics is a process of deductive logic. Therefore it is ideally suited to be the language and the deductive link between theories and experimental facts. Because of this, some non-scientists think that mathematics and logic are used to "prove" scientific propositions, to deduce new laws and theories, and to establish laws and theories with mathematical certainty. This is false, as we shall see.
This diagram shows the relations between facts, laws, and theories, and the role of induction and deduction. It will take on more meaning as this essay progresses.
Quotes about logic
Profoundly skill'd in Analytic;
He could distinguish, and divide
A hair 'twixt south and south-west side.
Formal logic, uses and misusesFormal logic was invented in Classical Greece and integrated into a `system' of thought by Aristotle. It was, for him, a tool for finding truth, but it didn't keep him from making the most profound errors of thought. Nearly every argument and conclusion he made about physical science was wrong and misguided. Any tool can be misused, and in these pre-scientific days logic was misused repeatedly.
So what went wrong? Aristotle understood that logic can be used to deduce true consequences from true premises. His error was his failure to realize that we have no absolutely true premises, except ones we define to be true (such as 2+2=4). Aristotle thought that the mind contains (from birth) some innate and absolutely true knowledge that can be used as premises for logical arguments. Medieval scholastics, who brought Aristotelian modes of thought to a height of absurdity, thought that absolutely true premises could be found in revelations from God, as recorded in the Bible.
Another error was to assume that the conclusions from a logical argument represent new truths. In fact, the deduced conclusions are just restatements and repackaging of the content contained in the premises. The conclusions may look new to us, because we hadn't thought through the logic, but they contain no more than the information contained in the premises. They are just cast in new form, a form that may seem to give us new insight and suggest new applications, but in fact no new information or truths are generated. This is especially noticeable in mathematics, for without considerable instruction in mathematics, the deductions from even a small set of premises are not at all obvious, and may take years to develop and understand.
The bottom line is that logic alone can tell us nothing new about the real world. Ditto for mathematics, as Albert Einstein observed: "Insofar as mathematics is exact, it does not apply to reality; and insofar as mathematics applies to reality, it is not exact."
So, of what use are logic and mathematics in science? Incalculable use, once we realize their strengths and limitations. In science we construct models and theories of nature. We test and use these by deriving their logical and mathematical consequences. Logic and mathematics are the cement that holds the scientific structure together, ensures its self-consistency, and helps us prevent errors of false inference. Logic and math do not, and cannot, generate new truths about nature. They only expose and reformulate the truths contained in our models, theories and laws. The conclusions aren't absolute truths, but 'proximate' truths, since the raw materials upon which theories are built are based upon imperfect measurements and observations of nature. But when we know how good (how precise) the measurements are, we can also predict how good are the theories and the facts deduced from them.
Scientists do not arrive at models and theories by application of logic. They arrive at them by many processes lumped under the name 'induction'. Induction cannot be reduced to a set of logical rules (though many have tried). To see patterns (sometimes subtle and hidden ones) in data and observations requires creative ability. This is the ability to think ahead and say, "What model, set of statements (laws) or theoretical construct could I devise from which these observations and data might be deduced?"
We can't find, discover, or construct scientific laws and theories by mathematics and logic alone. But we can derive testable and useful results by application of mathematics and logic to laws and theories, and if those deduced results pass experimental tests, our confidence in the validity of the theory from which they were derived is strengthened.
In this context, logic and mathematics are reliable and essential tools. Outside of this context they are instruments of error and self-delusion. Whenever you hear a politician, theologian or evangelist casting verbal arguments in the trappings of logic, you can be pretty sure that person is talking moonshine. The quotes that open this essay reflect caution in accepting such misuses of logic.
Misuse of logic is rampant in all fields, even academic ones. It is often used as a crutch to justify prejudices and as a club to smite those who hold opposing views. There are people who are thoroughly Aristotelian in their thinking, and do, indeed, believe in the profundity of empty logical arguments. Others, such as politicians and evangelists use logic cynically as an instrument for persuasion of those who don't realize that "There's a mighty big difference between good, sound reasons, and reasons that sound good." (Burton Hillis).
Just what is an 'empty' argument about the 'real world' of our experience?
Mistrust of science.Some people are profoundly disturbed by the fact that reason alone can't generate truths. When the use of mathematics and logic in science is explained to them they respond, "If mathematics and logic can't produce absolute truths, then they produce only untruths or partial truths, and are therefore worthless." This sentence is itself an example of nonsense clothed in the appearance of logic.
It must be admitted at the outset that science is not in the business of finding absolute truths. Science proceeds as if there are no absolute truths, or if there are such truths, we can never know what they are. As the pre-Socratic skeptics observed: If we were to stumble upon an absolute truth, we'd have no way to be certain it is an absolute truth. The models and theories of science are approximations to naturenever perfect. But in most cases we know rather well how good they are. We can state quantitatively the limits of uncertainty of numeric results, and their range of applicability. Yet there's always the possibility that we may find exceptions to one of our accepted laws, or may even find alternative theories that do a better job than older ones.
Some critics of science attack this process of science, on the grounds that it cannot produce absolute truths. Theirs is a black/white view of the scientific process. Never mind that they have not proposed any other process that is capable of producing anything near the power and comprehensiveness of present science. They say that "Theory X" isn't perfect therefore it is "wrong".
The results and predictions of a theory, being well tested, will not crumble if the theory is someday modified, drastically changed, or even replaced with another theory. The results or predictions of a theory are not all suddenly rendered "wrong" when a theory is modified or replaced. These results and predictions may be improved in precision or scope. Sometimes the predictions of a new theory have greater scope than the old one, predicting things the old one didn't (and things that we never had observed or tested before). Very often a new theory is sought because the old one, while its predictions were mostly correct, predicted a few things that just weren't confirmed by good experiments. We'll need to say more about this later.
The fact that science claims no absolute truths is seized upon by people who hold strong religious beliefs and who dislike those conclusions of science that run counter to their emotional convictions. To them, if a thing is not absolutely and finally true, it is false, and therefore the methods used to formulate it must be flawed.
The futility of searching for absolutes.Though the philosophers of ancient Greece developed formal logic, and got a good start toward mathematics, they realized the limitations of logic and the futility of seeking absolutes. Here are a few comments about this dilemma.
The gods did not reveal from the beginning
These folks who made these skeptical comments are not saying that "We can't know anything, so why bother?" They are saying that we can't "know" in the absolute sense, that we have no way to know if there are any absolute truths, and we wouldn't be able to prove the absoluteness of an absolute truth if we accidentally stumbled on one. Today we express it differently: "Science describes nature, it does not explain." Science attempts to answer "how" questions, but not "why" questions.
Science has progressed by rejecting much of its past history, past practices and past theory. Though the sciences arose from a muddled mix of mysticism, magic and speculation, scientists eventually realized that those modes of thought were prone to error and simply not productive. So chemists reject the theories of the alchemists. Astronomers reject astrology. Mathematicians reject the number-mysticism of the Pythagoreans. Physicists, when they bother to think about their discipline's roots, acknowledge the pre-scientific contributions of the ancient Greeks in mathematics, Democritus' view that nature is lawful, and also their attitude of seeking knowledge for its own sake. But they are embarrassed by the Greek teachings about physics, for most of these have all been consigned to the trash-heap of history.
Even those early ideas that happened to be in harmony with our present views seem based upon faulty methodology or were simply speculation. Sometimes a few of those guesses seemed surprisingly close to our modern views, at least superficially. But when examined in detail the similarity breaks down. Democritus' atomic theory, for example, was based on no hard evidence, had no historical connection with modern atomic theory, and its details bore no resemblance to what we now know about atoms. Once in a while, if you speculate wildly enough, you get lucky. Too many textbooks make a "big deal" out of such accidental similarities.
Intelligent Design Creationism: Fraudulent Science.